Guillemin (Guillemin), Roger( Franco-American physiologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1977)
Comments for Guillemin (Guillemin), Roger
Biography Guillemin (Guillemin), Roger
genus. January 11, 1924
Franco-American physiologist Roger Charles Louis Guillemin was born in Dijon (France) by Raymond and Blanche Guillemin. Received his secondary education in the public schools of Dijon, F. in 1942. finished the course the University of Dijon with a Bachelor of Arts and Sciences.
In 1943, Mr.. He went to medical school and became engaged in the program, jointly developed by the medical faculties of universities in Dijon and Lyon, but he did not have the capacity to conduct research. After a three-year clinical training, about the same internship, he had a brief medical practice. In 1940 ... 1944. participated in the resistance movement during the Nazi occupation of France.
Listening to in 1948. lecture Canadian physiologist and expert in the field of stress, Hans Selye, H. persuaded the latter to take him to the post of assistant at the Institute of Experimental Medicine and Surgery University of Montreal. Mr. Tam. engaged in experimental study of hypertension. These studies provided the basis for his dissertation, which he defended the medical faculty in Lyon in 1949, received his medical degree.
The following year, Mr.. returned to Montreal to conduct research in the field of experimental endocrinology - the border area of biology and medicine that studies the endocrine glands and their secretion products. These glands secrete hormones circulating in the blood and regulating the secretion of other endocrine glands, as well as the functioning of certain tissues. G. interested in the role of the hypothalamus in the control of hormonal secretion of pituitary. The hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain above the pituitary gland and is associated with its share of the anterior portal of the circulatory system. In 30-ies. British physiologist, GV. Harris found that the dispersal of portal vessels secretory activity of anterior pituitary decreased. Therefore, he suggested that the activity of the pituitary gland is regulated by blood-borne chemicals, or hormones, which serves as the source of the hypothalamus. T. to. These hypothalamic hormones since no one had been made, Mr.. decided to take up this task.
In 1953, Mr.. he was offered the post of assistant professor of physiology at Baylor Medical School, University of Houston in Texas, and he accepted this offer. Two years later, among his colleagues appeared in Andrew. Schally, who had just discovered the first of the hypothalamic hormones, which he called corticotropin-releasing factor. (KRB). Now this hormone called corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH) or kortikoliberinom. It is secreted by cells of the hypothalamus and transported via the portal blood vessels to the pituitary gland, which causes the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone, or ACTH. The latter, in turn, stimulates the secretion of adrenal hormones - cortisol and cortisone is included in the body's reaction to stress.
In the late 50-ies. G. and Schally, while remaining members of Baylor School, tried to isolate and determine the chemical structure of the QRD. However, they did not succeed, only in 1981. found that KRB - peptide (compound composed of amino acids, the structural units of molecules of proteins), consisting of 41 amino acids. The failure of G. Schally and determine the structure of KRB caused a lot of gossip among their fellow professionals. Nevertheless, they continued to study the hormones of the hypothalamus, convinced of the correctness of the original hypothesis Harris.
In 1962. Schally moved to the hospital management of Veterans Affairs in New Orleans and part-time in Tyuleynsky University. G. Baylor stayed in school, while occupying the post of Director of the Division of Experimental Endocrinology at the College de France (Paris). This lasted from 1960 to 1963, when he was appointed professor of physiology and director of the laboratory neyroendokrinologii at Baylor. In the same year he received American citizenship and became a consultant in hospital management of Veterans Affairs in Houston, in the hospital ppm. Anderson and anti-tumor institute.
By this time Mr.. and Schally were already working separately, competing with each other, and both have come close to the stage of the allocation of three other hormones of the hypothalamus. One of the difficulties faced by Mr.. in his work, was to obtain a sufficient number of hypothalamic tissue for extraction of the studied hormones. Because the body produces a paltry dose of hormones needed for the experiments, hundreds of thousands of preparations of the hypothalamus. G. used sheep hypothalamus, getting them to the slaughter. The glands should be removed immediately after slaughter of animals to prevent the process of splitting hormones.
Hypothalamic hormone that causes the release of thyroid stimulating hormone, was isolated G. and his colleagues in 1968. Because thyroid hormone causes the secretion of thyroid hormone the thyroid gland, it is also called tireoidstimuliruyuschim hormone (TSG). Schally gave hypothalamic hormone another name: thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF). He is also known as thyrotropin-releasing-hormone (TRH) and Thyrotropin-releasing hormone. In 1969. G. and Schally, working independently, determined that the TRF - a peptide (amino acid compound), consisting of three amino acids. According to GM, the definition of the chemical structure of TRF initiated neyroendokrinologii as a separate discipline. TRF is now used clinically for the diagnosis and treatment of some diseases associated with hormonal deficiency.
Another hypothalamic hormone, causing the release of pituitary gonadotropic hormones, was isolated G. and his colleagues in the late 60-ies. Gonadotropic hormones control the secretion of male and female sex hormones by the testes and ovaries. Another hypothalamic hormone called somatotropin-releasing factor (TSRF) Growth hormone releasing hormone or. G. colleagues found that TSRF - a peptide containing 10 amino acids. Subsequently, the researchers synthesized several analogues of this hormone - compounds similar in structure but differ in one component. Some of them have proved effective in the treatment of infertility caused by violations of the ovulatory cycle, while others may be used for birth control.
In 1970. G. changing jobs and moving to Solkovsky Institute, located in San Diego (California). Here for four years he and his colleagues identified three hypothalamic hormone, inhibiting the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. G. named the new hormone somatostatin. His research team found that somatostatin - a peptide containing 14 amino acids. Since somatostatin is characterized by mixed biological effects in the body and there is a very short time, it is not used in clinical medicine. However, if it were possible to synthesize analogs of somatostatin, . having prolonged action and specific biological functions, . they could be used for the treatment of diabetes, . ulcer and acromegaly (state, . caused by excess growth hormone, currently these drugs are synthesized and used, . particularly, . for the treatment of ulcer bleeding,
. - Notes. ed.). In the mid 70-ies. G. focused on studying the newly discovered species of neuropeptides (peptides acting in the nerve synapses of the hypothalamus and other brain areas): endorphins and enkephalins. Endorphins, appears to play an important role in the perception of pain by the body.
G. and Schally shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977. 'for his discoveries related to the secretion of peptide hormones of the brain' with Rosalyn C. Yalow. Concluding his Nobel lecture, Mr.. emphasized that the results obtained by him and other researchers on the secretion of peptide hormones of the brain, "lead to a radical revision of the mechanisms of normal brain functioning, and mental illness'.
Since 1970, Mr.. G. is a board member and head of the Laboratory neyroendokrinologicheskoy Solkovskogo Institute in San Diego, California. His research interests also include the neurochemistry of the brain and methods to improve population-based controls with antagonists of hormones of the hypothalamus.
In 1951, Mr.. G. married Lucien Jeanne Biyyar. I was born the son of the couple and their five daughters.
G. received an Honorary Doctorate at the University of Rochester, Chicago, Ulm, Dijon and Montreal, as well as the Baylor College of Medicine and the Free University of Brussels. Among his awards - the International Prize of Gardner Fund (1974), . Dickson Prize in Medicine University of Pittsburgh (1976), . Prize for Medicine Foundation Passau Passau (1976), . Medal "For scientific achievements' of the National Science Foundation (1977), . Medal Dale Endocrinology Society of London (1980),
. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, . American Academy of Arts and Sciences, . American Physiological Society, . Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, . International Brain Research, . International Society for Research on the biology and reproduction, . Swedish Society for Scientific Medicine and the French National Academy of Medicine.,