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Gullstrand (Gullstrand), Alvar

( Swedish ophthalmologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1911)

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Biography Gullstrand (Gullstrand), Alvar
June 5, 1862, Mr.. - July 21, 1930
Swedish ophthalmologist Alvar Gullstrand was born in Lendskrone in Sofia Matilda (Korsell), and Gullstrand Gullstrand Pehra Alfred, head of medical services of the city. Although the boy fond of mechanics, dreamed of becoming an engineer, he still decided to go to his father's footsteps and get a medical education. After teaching in secondary schools of his native city and he Dzhenkeninga in 1880. enrolled at Uppsala University.
G. completed a medical course in 1885. and continued his studies in Vienna. Returning the next year in Sweden, he studied two years at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, passed the exams, which allowed him to engage in medical practice, and decided to specialize in ophthalmology, he worked at the hospital Seraphim. In 1890, Mr.. He received his Ph.D. from the Karolinska Institute, a thesis on astigmatism (a condition connected with a violation of refractive power of the optical system of the eye).
The following year, Mr.. began to lecture on ophthalmology at Karolinska Institute and became head physician of the eye clinic in Stockholm, and in 1892. - Its director. But he was unable to continue research on the geometric and physiological optics and the problems associated with the formation of visual images in biological systems, to the appointment in 1894. professor of ophthalmology at Uppsala University.
. By the beginning of his research optics glass lens has been developed in detail, in particular, the German physicist Ernst Abbe, the calculations that creates high-precision optical systems, avoiding refractive errors
. The eye is different from the crystalline glass on several important parameters. If a glass lens consists of a homogeneous medium, refracting light in a certain way, lens of the eye - of the many layers of transparent fibers, the mechanism of refraction which in 1890. not been sufficiently studied. In addition, the lens of the eye is retained ligaments and muscles, giving him the ability to change shape and thus focus images (ability, known as accommodation). The merit of Mr.. was not only in calculating the index of refraction of the eye and the mechanism of accommodation, but also in combining these parameters into a single mathematical model of the visual display.
With the help of complex mathematical calculations D. found that the lens of the eye is constantly changing its index of refraction, which makes it possible to get an accurate image on the retina. Job T. provided a more reliable and accurate correction of violations such as aberration and astigmatism than was possible ever before. He summarized their findings in the comments to the book of Hermann von Helmholtz 'Treatise on physiological optics' ( "Treatise on Physiological Optics", 1924 ... 1925), which was edited in 1909
Two years later, Mr.. proposed to use in a clinical study eyes two new instruments - slit lamp and ophthalmoscope Gullstrand, which he developed in conjunction with the Zeiss optical company in Vienna. Slit-lamp, which is usually used in combination with a microscope, the ophthalmologist can examine the cornea and lens and to determine whether not contained in the aqueous humor (fluid that fills the eyeball), any alien object. Ophthalmoscope is usually used for the study of ocular fundus in patients with diseases such as arteriosclerosis and diabetes.
In 1911, Mr.. G. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his work on anaclastics eyes'. In a speech when giving the award to. Merner of the Karolinska Institute said: 'The fundamental work of von Helmholtz made so many new issues in the refraction and image formation in the eye, . it seemed incredible, . that any new research in this area can have a revolutionary impact on science, . as happened with GM research ',
. In his Nobel lecture Mr.
. noted, . that the lens of the eye is' on the entire length of the uncertain quantities of artfully arranged, . microscopically thin fibers, . ending at different depths under the two surfaces of the lens and sent from one end to another in the form of spirals',
. 'By the beginning of my research - added G., - the laws of formation of visual images in such an environment were completely unknown, and many of the things that seemed clear, it was a mistake'. He then reviewed the work for which he received the Nobel Prize, and summarized the results.
In 1914, Mr.. at Uppsala University for F. created Department of Physical and Physiological Optics. Here he concentrated his research on the calculations to improve the refractive surfaces of optical instruments and geometrical optics. From 1911 to 1929. G. was a member of the Nobel Committee for Physics of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Following the resignation in 1927. from Uppsala University, his health deteriorated and creativity diminished.
The high demands on themselves and intelligence, which Mr.. brought to the work, made him very respected person in the scientific community. Seemed at first impression aloof and indifferent, he was known among his colleagues as a cordial and friendly.
In 1895, Mr.. G. married Signe Christine Breytolts. They had a daughter, who died at an early age. G. died on 21 July 1930. Stockholm as a result of stroke.
G. was awarded honorary degrees from Uppsala University, . Jena and Dublin and awarded Burke Medical Faculty of Uppsala University (1905), . Golden Jubilee Medal '100 years of the Swedish Medical Association '(1908), . Medal of Grief Germanskogo Society of Ophthalmologists (1927) and many other awards.,

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Gullstrand (Gullstrand), Alvar, photo, biography
Gullstrand (Gullstrand), Alvar, photo, biography Gullstrand (Gullstrand), Alvar  Swedish ophthalmologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1911, photo, biography
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