Domagk (Domagk), Gerhard( German bacteriologist Nobel Prize on physiology and medicine, 1939)
Comments for Domagk (Domagk), Gerhard
Biography Domagk (Domagk), Gerhard
October 30 1895 g. - 24 April 1964
German bacteriologist Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk born in family of Paul's Domagk and Martha (Raymer) Domagk in Leygau, suburb Brandenburg. He received his primary education in Sommerfeld, where his father worked as a teacher and assistant headmaster. After graduating from high school in Legnica D. in 1914, before the First World War, began teaching at the Faculty of Medicine, Keele University. He went as a volunteer on the Eastern Front, was wounded and after his recovery he served in medical units until the end of the war. He then continued his studies in Kiel and in 1921. received medical degree, thesis on education creatinine in organism Rights after load.
Left in Kiel university, D. worked assistant in in department chemistry and pathology, simultaneously studying possibilities use rentgenovskikh rays when ц╜ц╔ц╢ц╟ц╗ц╡ц╔ and cancer in Institute patologii Greifswald where in 1924 g. became Assistant Professor (Visiting Professor) in general pathology and anatomy. The following year, D. appointed Privatdocent-docent Munster University, and in 1928. - Professor of general pathology and pathological anatomy. In Greifswald and Mц╪nster he began engage problems cancer.
In 1927, Mr.. Germanic chemical Concern 'IG. Farbenindustrie 'invited D. whom celebrated 32 years, on post Director eksperimental'noi research laboratory pathology and bacteriology in Wuppertal-Elberfeld. He remained at this place until his retirement.
Opening in 1910. pharmacologist and immunologist Paul Ehrlich organic matter salvarsan to treat syphilis gave an impetus to research other chemical products for the treatment of infectious diseases. Although there have been some advances in the use of chemotherapy for the treatment of tropical diseases and diseases caused by protozoa, but only D. tested antimicrobial drugs intended to treat bacterial infections such as pneumonia and tuberculosis.
D. began a systematic search for the possible application of new dyes in medical practice. Substances initially tested for their effects on some types of microbes. Then determined tolerant doses for laboratory animals and finally, studied effectiveness their actions at infectio animals and people. In 1932, Mr.. D. found that the red azo dyes, synthetic chemists Mitch Fritz and Joseph Klarer and implemented Concern 'IG. Farben 'called' prontosil 'as a dye for rapid dyeing of leather goods, in combination with a sulfonamide radical is effective against streptococcal infections in mice.
. Eksperimental'nye results use prontosil as therapeutic medication were first published in February 1935 g
. in became now classical acticle 'German medical weekly' ( 'Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift'). One of the first patients who received treatment prontosil, was the daughter of AD, Hildegard, who had a streptococcal infection, resistant to all other treatments. When daughter proved on the threshold of death, D. brought her large doses of prontosil, which led to a rapid recovery.
Were conducted studies influence prontosil on other sickness Rights, caused other bakteriyami. Doctors have learned that the good effect of prontosil observed in the treatment of cerebrospinal meningitis, pneumonia, and gonorrhea. Sulfanil-amide preparations were immediately put into surgery and dental practice. In France, Daniel Bovet and other researchers have found that one of the components prontosil, sulfanilamide, has a similar effect. A year after the appearance of prontosil in commercially 'IG. Farben 'stated that it was created more than 1 thousand. sulfanilamides. Two of them, and sulfapiridin sulphathiazole, reduced the mortality from pneumonia to nearly zero.
. Opening antibacterial effects prontosil, the first of the so-called sulfanilamides, was one of the greatest therapeutic successes in the history of medicine
. Rene Dubos later revealed that the natural substances produced by microorganisms may also have antibacterial action, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin effects - and began a new era in medicine.
D. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939. 'for the discovery of the antibacterial effect prontosil'. During the three years before Adolf Hitler, angered by the fact of awarding fascist Carl von Ossietzky Nobel Peace Prize, has forbidden anyone to get a German Nobel Prize. After being awarded the D. was arrested, entered a short time in jail and forced to abandon it awards. At the award ceremony Nunn Schwartz of the Karolinska Institute, noting the importance of the DA, said that the 'discovery prontosil gave unexpected perspectives in the treatment of infectious diseases. Fundamentals of the unprecedented proliferation of chemotherapy for less than five years were laid D. and his colleagues'. He added that "thousands and thousands of people save each year by prontosil and its derivatives'. In 1947, Mr.. D. came to Stockholm to receive a diploma and a gold medal, but in accordance with the rules of prize money were returned to the reserve fund of the Nobel Committee, and he could not get them.
During the Second World War D. engaged in the study of tuberculosis and to 1946. able to report on tuberculostatic effect sulphathiazole sulfatiodiazola. It was also found that the thiosemicarbazone and isonicotinic acid hydrazide are effective drugs in the treatment of patients with tuberculosis, even resistant to streptomycin. In the last few years of his life Dr.. interested in the problem of cancer and hoped to get a substance to destroy cancer cells without damaging other cells in animals or humans.
D. married Gertrude Stryube in 1925, they have a daughter and three sons. He died in Byurberge (region of Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) 24 April 1964. D. received numerous honorary awards, . including Emil Fischer medal Germanskogo Chemical Society (1937), . Cameron Prize and the title of professor at Edinburgh University (1938), . gold medal by Paul Ehrlich at Frankfurt University (1956) and the Order of the Rising Sun, . awarded to the Government of Japan (1960).,