CARREL Alexis (Carrel Alexis)( French surgeon and biologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1912)
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Biography CARREL Alexis (Carrel Alexis)
June 28, 1873, Mr.. - November 5, 1944
. Alexis Carrel, French surgeon and biologist, born in Lyon and was the eldest of three children, Anna Mary (Rickard) Carrel-Billiard and Alexis Carrel-Billiard, engaged in the production of silk, who died when the boy was 5 years
. Initially involved in the formation of Alexis's mother, deeply religious woman, and then he attended the daily confessional school and college, located not far from home. Although K. not been well-performing pupils, he soon developed an interest in science, when he led his uncle carried out chemical experiments and dissecting birds. At age 12 he decided to become a doctor. Before entering medical school to. receive two bachelor's degrees: one in the literature in the University of Lyon in 1890, another - for Science in the University of Dijon in 1891, Mr.. From 1893 to 1900. He worked in various hospitals in Lyon, where he has proved its ability to surgery. After receiving medical degree at the University of Lyon, he was admitted to the State Coroner and the post from 1899 to 1902. produced there autopsy of the dead.
At a time when K. worked in the hospitals of Lyon, the French president Marie Franцїois Carnot was attacked by terrorists. A bullet grazed a major artery, as yet there was no method to restore the integrity of large vessels, Carnot died of bleeding. This case prompted the. to search towards the restoration of damaged vessels. To achieve excellence, he took lessons on embroidery. For cross-linking vascular K. used exclusively thin needles and silk threads. Even before the age of 30, he perfectly captured the original technique: turning back the edge of the cut vessels, sewed them in such a way that the blood came into contact only their inner smooth surface. When connecting the edges of blood vessels, he used the three supporting suture, which turned round hole in the triangular. Then each of the three sides of a triangle is easy to sew. In order to prevent thrombo-education - one of the main problems in vascular surgery - he covered the tools and threads with paraffin. K. succeeded not only in the cross-linking of the arteries and veins, but also in restoring blood flow through the damaged vessels, as first reported in 1902
Despite these achievements,. not received the post of professor at the University of Lyon. Countering this appointment, . probably, . arose because of his intransigence, . which is considered as cruelty in different social situations, . and because of his intellectual independence and critical attitude to some traditions, . existed at the Medical Faculty,
. Upset no established relationship in the University of Lyon, K. in 1903. moved to Paris and during the year improved in the field of medicine. After training, he immigrated to Canada with the intention to become the owner of cattle farm. However, before he changed his profession, he was invited to the University of Chicago as assistant in the department of physiology. During his stay in Chicago from 1904 to 1906. he perfected his surgical technique and the first operations on organ transplantation, which would have been impossible without the use of his method of cross-linking and technical skill.
Its successes to. attracted the attention of Simon Flexner, who tried to attract talented researchers in the newly established Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now - Rockefeller University) in New York. In 1906, Mr.. K. became a member of the Rockefeller Institute, where, despite his characteristic aloofness, he met with a more congenial than in Lyon, a group of colleagues. He felt at home here, and it is often seen in white surgical cap for an official luncheon, enthusiastically leading philosophical discussions with his colleagues. In the first years of stay in the Rockefeller Institute to. conducted experiments on the transplantation of organs and further improved surgical techniques transplantation not only blood vessels and kidneys, and whole limbs from one animal to another
To. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912. 'in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs'. In a speech when giving the award Julius Ackerman of the Karolinska Institute Congratulates K. and noted the importance of the invention a new method of matching receptacles. 'Through this method, - said Ackerman, - is provided free blood flow in the suture and at the same time prevents postoperative bleeding, thrombosis and re-stenosis. With this method, you can restore vascular patency, to replace the remote patient segment of the vessel segment, taken from a vessel or from another person '.
. Although the surgical wounds in animals-recipients often healed, and the bodies appeared to be included in the livelihoods of their new owners, but with time going on their rejection
. K. realized that, 'while the problem of organ transplantation has been solved in terms of surgery, this was not enough to make such operations in the normal surgical procedures'. Conducting such operations was not possible even for 50 years until Jean Jean Dausset has not demonstrated that the success of organ transplantation depends on the genetic and immunological factors.
Significantly fewer problems encountered by K. in the transplantation of segments of blood vessels than in the transplantation of organs. He was easily able to replace the damaged part of the artery or vein in other blood vessels taken from the same animal. Such autotransplantation of vessels is the basis of many important operations, . currently performed, for example, . during coronary bypass surgery using a modified substitution of coronary artery high-grade vein, . taken from the lower extremity of the same patient,
. In the skilled hands of K. Similar operations have been key to success. Only after the 40-ies. When it became available antibiotics and anticoagulants, operations on the vessels came into wide practice.
In 1913, Mr.. K. married Anne de la Mothe de Meira, who had a son from his first marriage, common children they had. Anne Carrel was a nurse, supporting her husband in his studies, often assist him with surgeries. K., never became a U.S. citizen in 1941. was recalled to France in connection with the beginning of the Second World War. While serving in the medical parts of the French army, he used his method of matching vessels in the treatment of wounded soldiers. For services during the war years, he was awarded the Legion of Honor.
In collaboration with biochemist Henry D. Dekinom K. developed a soft, non-toxic and not irritating disinfectant, consisting of buffered aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite, which is effectively used during surgery for washing and treating wounds. Application of the method Carrel - Dekina significantly reduced the incidence of gangrene, but later he was replaced by the use of antibiotics.
A similar fate befell most famous achievement by. - Cultivation of living tissues in the laboratory. He and his colleagues took a piece of heart tissue of chicken embryos, and they managed to keep the cells viable and grow at a subsequent transfer to fresh medium. Cultivation of cells attracted global interest, and connective tissue cell line was maintained for 24 years, surviving the scientist. Although the work to. helped to better understand the vital functions of normal and malignant cells and viruses, culturing of tissue - as well as vascular surgery - not widely used at the time of K.
After the First World War to. returned to the Rockefeller Institute, in the early 30-ies. he attempted the cultivation of whole organs in the laboratory. In these experiments, he helped the American aviator Charles Lindbergh, who invented the perfusion system, carrying out the circulation of the nutrient fluid through the isolated organ in a moist chamber. This system, . resistant to infection by microbes, . was designed to sustain in a liquid medium of isolated vital organs, altering the components of the flowing fluid, . You can recreate the various pathological conditions in order to further their study,
. Despite the fact that this method allowed to. maintain some of the bodies of animals within a few days or even weeks, he has long been used in practical surgery. However, these experiments have been useful for those who later developed the apparatus of artificial respiration and circulation, and other support devices for vascular surgery. Lindberg believed to. 'one of the most brilliant, insightful and flexible minds'.
When in 1935. Simon Flexner retired from the Rockefeller Institute, K. lost a teacher who not only supported his venture, but he knew his character. By mutual agreement with the successor to the Flexner. in 1938. retired with the rank of Distinguished Professor. After the occupation by the Wehrmacht in 1940. northern part of France to. returned to Paris, where, declining the offer to head the Ministry of Health, founded with the support of the Vichy Government's Institute for the Study of Human Problems.
In his most popular book 'Man. Unknown '( "Man, the Unknown", 1935) K. presented an ambitious plan, which, in his opinion, save humanity and improve the quality of the human population. He proposed a 'High Council', which will rule the world for the benefit of its prosperity, decisions of this body will be of a recommendatory nature for political leaders. According to K., the organization "will have sufficient knowledge to prevent physical and mental degeneracy of civilized nations."
Idea to. coincided with some of the ideas of Nazism, . and its elite theory coincided with the adoption of its support from the Vichy government and negotiations with Germany, . the creation of its Institute, . which led to exaggerated charges against him in collaboration with the Nazis,
. Soon after the liberation of France, in 1944, the institute was disbanded. Supporters K. argued that his ideas have been dreaming about changing the development of postwar France, in accordance with the philosophical and biological areas, outlined in his book. American anatomist and writer George in. Korner wrote that 'By. not been disloyal to the political regime that existed in France and America, which took him so long, he only thought about the prosperity of his country in accordance with the consciences'. Although K. and has been arrested for collaborating with the Germans, the constant debate on this issue cast a shadow on his reputation. Undermined by the privations of wartime, to health. deteriorated and he died in Paris on Nov. 5, 1944, Mr.. from heart disease.
To. was a member of scientific societies, the USA, Spain, Sweden, Russia, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Vatican, Germany, Italy and Greece. He received honorary doctoral degrees universities in Belfast, Princeton, Brown, New York, Columbia and California. K. was a knight of the Belgian Order of Leopold and the Swedish Order of the Polar Star, is rewarded with Spain, Serbia, Great Britain and the Vatican.