MEASLES (Cori), Gerty T.( Austrian-American biochemist and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1947)
Comments for MEASLES (Cori), Gerty T.
Biography MEASLES (Cori), Gerty T.
August 15, 1896, Mr.. - October 26, 1957 g.Avstriysko-American biochemist Gerty Theresa Cori Radnits born in Prague (part of the time of the Austro-Hungarian), the son of a businessman and manager of Sugar Plant Radnitsa Otto and Martha Radnits (Neushtadt). Gertie was the eldest of three daughters in the family. Primary and secondary education she received from private teachers, and then in a real school in Tethene (now Decin, Czechoslovakia), which she graduated in 1914. In the same year, under the influence of his uncle, a professor of pediatrics, she enrolled in Deutsch University in Prague to study medicine. Here she met a medical student, Carl F. Cory, which conducted a joint study of serum complement - a complex of serum proteins involved in immune reactions. received a medical degree. In the same year she married Carl Cori. Soon after the wedding, Cory moved to Vienna. Here two years to. In 1922, Mr.. wife Kori American citizenship, and three years later moved to St. Louis (Missouri) to work in the medical school at Washington University. Here K. Continuing to study the metabolism of carbohydrates, Corey drew particular attention to the biochemistry of glucose and glycogen. French physiologist Claude Bernard, who has found in liver cells of experimental animals a large number of substances krahmalopodobnogo. Glycogen consists of the union in the chain of glucose molecules and is the main biochemical form in which glucose is deposited in the liver and muscles. Elucose - basic source energy for livelihoods cells, she represents monosaccharide consisting atoms hydrogen, oxygen and carbon.
. Food starch, composed of two polysaccharides - amylose and amylopectin, is transformed into glucose under the action of the enzyme pancreatic amylase
. Next glucose sucked in thin intestine, gets in Gate receptacles and tolerated in liver where becomes into glycogen and accumulates for further use. Full cycle this mutual transformation called a currently cycle of Kori.
In 1936, Mr.. Kori discovered glucose-1-fosfat, which subsequently was named efirom Kori. Several later, in 30-ц¦ gg., Cory installed biochemical mechanism actions insulin - hormone, synthesizable and produced islet cells pancreas. If there is a lack of insulin diabetes - a disease in which glucose can not be properly assimilated by the cells and used them as a source of energy.
. Five years later when allocating in crystalline form and purification enzyme phosphorylase they discovered that this enzyme exists both in active or in inactive forms which they named respectively phosphorylase a and phosphorylase b. Next they installed biochemical conditions, in which happening activation inactive forms.
In 1944, Mr.. Kori synthesized in vitro glycogen. As initial substances they have took the molecule of glycogen with short-chain, glucose, fosfat and three enzyme - hexokinase, fosfoglyukomutazu and phosphorylase. This confirmed their hypothesis three-phased ways biosynthesis glycogen from glucose. Later K. discovered another enzyme involved in the synthesis and cleavage of branched forms of liver glycogen and plant cells. In the same year she received the position of adjunct professor of biochemistry at the University of Washington Medical School, and three years later became a professor of biochemistry.
In 1947, Mr.. spouses Kori was Nobel Prize on physiology and medicine 'per opening catalytic transformation glycogen'. This award they shared with the Argentine physiologist Bernardo Usaem. In the congratulatory speech, a researcher at the Karolinska Institute Hugo Hugo Theorell pointed out that 'for chemists, the ultimate proof way of education material is its synthesis. Professor and Dr. Cory achieved surprising result - they were able to synthesize glycogen in vitro with a set of enzymes that are isolated in pure form, opening with the mechanism of their action. With mere methods of organic chemistry it would be impossible ... Enzymes also received measles, allowed to carry out this synthesis, since they catalyze the reaction of certain chemical bonds'. Hugo Theorell added that that opening spouses Kori enzymatic mechanism Invertible prevrashchenii glucose is 'one from most brilliant achievements of modern biokhimii'.
. Further research revealed the chemical structure of Cory glycogen and NAALE 50-ies
. established biochemical disturbances that underlie glycogenosis. In these diseases in the cells of the liver and other tissues, glycogen accumulates in quantities far exceeding the usual. K. showed that in fact glycogenosis are a group of diseases related to deficiency of certain enzymes.
In the last years of life to. suffered mielosklerozom - long, serious disease in which bone marrow is gradually replaced by fibrous connective tissue. She died in 1957,. in Glendale (Missouri). After the death of K. Scientists from all over the United States gathered at a memorial service in St. Louis. They listened to a tape recording, which to. made for television movie Edward Merrou 'what I believe'. 'In the life of a scientist - said K. - are unforgettable and rare moments when, after years of hard work with the veil of the mysteries of nature suddenly falls down and what seemed plunged into darkness and chaos, becoming light and harmonious'. Houssay once said that life for. was' an excellent example of service to the ideals ... progress of science and the good of mankind '.
Teamwork Cory not limited to walls laboratory. They were both great lovers of trekking, mountaineering, engaging in the Austrian Alps and in the U.S. Rocky Mountains. In addition, they liked to play tennis, skating and working in the garden. In the family they had one son.
To. was awarded endocrinological Squibb Company (together with Carl Cori) (1947), . Harvey Medal of the American Chemical Society (1948) and the Borden Award for Medical Research of the American Association of Medical Colleges (1951),
. She was a member of the American Society of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of the USA, the American Chemical Society and the American Philosophical Society. K. was awarded honorary degrees from Boston, Yale, Columbia and the University of Rochester, and Smith College.