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MEASLES (Cori), Carl F.

( Austrian-American biochemist and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1947)

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Biography MEASLES (Cori), Carl F.
December 5, 1896, Mr.. - October 19, 1984
Austrian-American biochemist Carl Ferdinand Cori was born in Prague (included in the time of the Austro-Hungarian). His parents were Mary Cory (Libby) and Carl Cori, professor of zoology and director of the Prague University Marine Biological Station at Trieste. After completion of secondary education in Prague and Trieste in 1914. K. entered Deutsch University in Prague to study medicine. Soon, however, K. was forced to interrupt their studies, t. to. the First World War. He was drafted into the Austrian army and served as an officer of the Medical Service on the Italian front.
After the war, to. returned to university to complete their studies. Here he met medical student Gerty Theresa Radnits and in 1920. married her. In the same year to. received a medical degree, then worked for two years as an assistant in the First Medical Clinic of Vienna, and then as an assistant in pharmacology at the University of Graz. At this time, Gerty T. Cory worked as an assistant at Karolinska Children's Hospital in Vienna.
By Portfolio. attracted the attention of the New York State Institute of malignant tumors (later named Roswell Park Institute) in Buffalo. In 1922, Mr.. K. received an offer to work at the Institute biochemist. Temporarily leaving his wife in Europe, to. moved to the United States of America. Based in Buffalo, he found his wife as assistant-pathologist at the institute and subsequently Gerty T. Cory went to the post of assistant biochemist.
. Since spouses Cory particularly interested in carbohydrate metabolism in normal tissues and malignant tumors, they are in the first years of work in Buffalo focused on the study of carbohydrate metabolism in tumor cells
. In addition, they studied the effect of ovariectomy (surgical removal of the ovaries) on the growth of such cells.
In 1928, Mr.. Cory wife took U.S. citizenship, and next year to. became an assistant professor of physiology at the University of Buffalo. Two years later the couple moved to work in the medical school at Washington University in St. Louis (Missouri), where K. was promoted to professor of pharmacology, and his wife - a member of the school board and researcher in pharmacology and biochemistry. Here they continued their research on carbohydrate metabolism, focusing on biochemistry of glucose and glycogen. The existence of glycogen has been known since 1857, when the French physiologist Claude Bernard discovered in the liver cells of experimental animals a large number of substances krahmalopodobnogo. Glycogen consists of glucose molecules linked together in a chain, and is the main biochemical form in which glucose is deposited in the liver and muscles. Glucose - the main energy source of living cells, it represents a monosaccharide containing atoms of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon.
. Food starch, composed of two polysaccharides - amylose and amylopectin, is transformed into glucose under the action of the enzyme pancreatic amylase
. Then glucose is absorbed in the small intestine, gets in the portal vessels and transported to the liver, which turns into glycogen and postponed for later use. Normally, the liver as glycogen are approximately three-day supply of glucose. In 30 ... 40-ies. Cory wife held a series of experiments which were clarified by the biochemical reactions involved in the exchange of glucose and glycogen. Currently, a full cycle of splitting and resynthesis of glycogen is called the Cori cycle.
In 1936, Mr.. Kori discovered glucose-1-fosfat, which subsequently was named efirom Kori. At the same time, they reveal the biochemical mechanisms of action of insulin - a hormone synthesized and emitted islet cells of the pancreas. Lack of insulin in the body causes diabetes - diseases in which cells can not properly absorb and use glucose as an energy source.
In 1938. Cory first to describe the conversion of glucose-1-phosphate glucose-6-phosphate (as well as the reverse process) under the action of the enzyme fosfoglyukomutazy. In 1943, Mr.. they were isolated and identified in the crystal form of phosphorylase and, finding that this enzyme can exist in active and in inactive form, revealed the biochemical environment in which there is an activation of the enzyme.
. The next year, Cory was synthesized glycogen in vitro
. The initial products they use glycogen molecule with a short-chain, glucose, phosphate, and three enzymes - hexokinase, and phosphorylase fosfoglyukomutazu. Thus, they confirmed their hypothesis of a Three-way biosynthesis of glycogen from glucose. In the same year to. was promoted to professor of biochemistry at the University of Washington Medical School. Two years later he became head of the department of biochemistry.
In 1947, Mr.. Carl and Gerty Cori were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery of catalytic conversion of glycogen '. They shared the prize with the Argentine physiologist Bernardo Usaem. In the congratulatory speech researcher at the Karolinska Institute Hugo Teorell said that the work of Cory 'revealed extremely complex enzymatic machinery involved in the reversible reactions between glucose and glycogen'. This discovery he called "one of the most brilliant achievements of modern biochemistry 'and the basis of' new concept of hormones and enzymes."
Cory couple was united not only the scientific work. Together they engaged in mountaineering, tennis, skating and working in the garden. The family was born to them one son. In 1957. Gerty Cori died, and K. married to the inhabitant of St. Louis Fitzgerald, Ann Jones, who has from a previous marriage had two daughters and two sons.
In 1966, Mr.. K. retired from the University of Washington and was appointed consulting professor in biochemistry at Harvard Medical School. Here he is up to the end of life continued to study. In 1984. K. the age of 87 years, died at his home in Cambridge (Massachusetts).
To. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Philosophical Society, the American Society of Biochemistry and the American Chemical Society. K. was awarded honorary degrees from universities in Western Reserve (now University of Case-Western Reserve).
Brandeis, and Yale, Boston, Cambridge, St. Louis, Washington University and Gustavus Adolphus College.

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MEASLES (Cori), Carl F., photo, biography
MEASLES (Cori), Carl F., photo, biography MEASLES (Cori), Carl F.  Austrian-American biochemist and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1947, photo, biography
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