Albrecht Kossel( German physiologist and biochemist Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1910)
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Biography Albrecht Kossel
September 16, 1853, Mr.. - July 5, 1927
German physiologist and biochemist Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel was born in Rostock. He was the only son of a merchant Albrecht Kossel and Clara Kossel (Jeppe). In childhood he was interested in botany and often went for walks in the neighborhood of Rostock, during which he studied various plants. Despite the boy's undying interest in botany, his father felt that science yielded promising results and recommended Albrecht to study medicine. Fulfilling the wishes of his father, K. in 1872. enrolled in the newly established Imperial University in Strasbourg, where he began to listen to lectures mycologist Anton de Bary.
In Strasbourg, K. studied under the guidance of a specialist in the field of physiological chemistry, Felix Hoppe-Sayler. In 1877, Mr.. Rostock K. passed the state exam, received his doctorate in medicine and returned to Strasbourg, where he began working as an assistant Hoppe-Sayler at the Institute of Physical Chemistry. Their joint research focused on the diffusion of salts and the digestion of proteins under the action of the enzyme pepsin.
To. began to study the chemical components nukleina - phosphorus-rich substance found in 1869. Friedrich Miescher in the nuclei of cells contained in pus. After 10 years to. identified nuklein of starch. Then he and his students determined that the nucleic acids are composed of so-called pyrimidine nitrogenous bases, which include thymine, cytosine and uracil. In 1897. Emil Fischer first identified the other major components of nucleic acid - purine bases adenine and guanine. As a result, by the end of XIX century. was open most of the major components of nucleic acids. Not only were studied carbohydrate components, although. and suggested that they represent a mixture of hexoses and pentoses - simple carbohydrates, or monosaccharides.
One of the tasks to. was to link the chemical structure of a substance the cell with its biological activity. By studying the physiological properties of nukleina, he came to the conclusion that this substance plays a role in the growth of tissues, and is not a source of energy for muscle cells. This conclusion was confirmed when K. found a very large content nukleina in embryonic tissues.
In 1883, Mr.. K. was appointed director of the department of chemistry, and four years later - an assistant professor at the Berlin Physiological Institute. Here he worked until 1895, while teaching load leaves little time for research. Having moved to Marburg, K. became professor of physiology and director of the Institute of Physiology. Here he was able to devote more time to research, and scientists from many countries around the world come here to work together with K.
In the study of another component nukleina K. isolated from the nuclei of erythrocytes goose protein substance - histone. He found that it was similar to protamine, Miescher found in fish sperm. As histone and protamines of different fish were simple basic proteins.
In 1901, Mr.. K. Wilhelm Kц╪hne replaced as director of the Heidelberg Institute for Physiological and remained in that position until his retirement. In 1907, Mr.. He was chairman of the VII International Congress of Physiologists, convened in his honor.
In 1910,. K. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for "contributions to the study of the chemistry of cells, made studies of proteins, including the nucleic substances". At this time, the role of nucleic acids in the coding and transmission of genetic information was still unknown, and K. could not have anticipated the importance of his work will have to genetics. While in 1893. K. and reported that the chromosomes are composed of nucleic acids and different amounts of protein (histone), he was not involved in the nature of the substrate of heredity. In 1912, Mr.. K. gave a lecture in which he pointed to the diversity of polypeptides and suggested that the chemical basis for the transmission of hereditary information can be a structure of the protein.
To. first developed as the concept of building elements of the cell. He noted that some substances - amino acids, sterols, purines and pyrimidines, available in all the cells of animals and plants - are the basic building blocks for a variety of physiological processes. In the period from 1885 to 1901. K. with his students discovered several amino acids.
In 1886. K. married Louise Holzman. In the family they were born a daughter and son.
In 1924, Mr.. K. retired, leaving the work of Heidelberg Physiological Institute, and then worked at the Institute of Chemistry of proteins and, under the leadership of Ludwig Krц╤ll, in the newly established University of Heidelberg Medical Clinic. July 5, 1927, Mr.. the age of 73 he died of cardiac arrest.
To. been awarded many prizes, t. h. honorary degrees from universities in Cambridge, Dublin, Edinburgh, Ghent, Greifswald and St. Andrew. He was a member of many scientific institutions in t.ch. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of Uppsala. For over 30 years he was editor of the Journal of physiological chemistry '( "Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie").