CREEK Francis( English specialist in the field of molecular biology, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1962)
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Biography CREEK Francis
genus. June 8, 1916
English specialist in the field of molecular biology, Francis Harry Compton Crick was born in Northampton and was the eldest of two sons, Harry Compton Crick, a wealthy shoe manufacturer, and Anne Elizabeth (Wilkins) Crick. After spending his childhood in Northampton, he attended grammar school. During the economic crisis of the post-World War I, commercial affairs of the family have declined, and parents to. moved to London. While a student at the school Mill Hill, K. showed great interest in physics, chemistry and mathematics. In 1934, Mr.. he entered the University College in London to study physics and graduated with honors three years, receiving the title of bachelor of science. Complete their education at University College, K. addressed the issues of viscosity of water at high temperatures, this work was interrupted in 1939. the outbreak of the Second World War.
During the war years to. involved in the creation of mines in the research laboratory of Department of the Navy of Great Britain. Within two years after the war he continued to work in this ministry and it was then read a certain book, Erwin Schrodinger 'What zhiznN Physical aspects of a living cell' ( 'What Is LifeN The Physical Aspects of the Living Cell'), . which was published in 1944,
. In Schrodinger's book asks the question: 'How can the space-time events occurring in living organisms, to explain from the perspective of physics and himiiN'
. The ideas contained in the book, so influenced the K. that he had the intention to do particle physics, switched to biology
. With the support of Archibald in. Hill K. received a scholarship of the Council of Medical Research in 1947. joined Strendzhveyskoy laboratory in Cambridge. There he studied biology, organic chemistry and methods of X-ray diffraction used to determine the spatial structure of molecules. His knowledge of biology has expanded considerably after the transition in 1949. the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge - one of the world's centers of molecular biology.
Under the leadership of Max Perutz to. studied the molecular structure of proteins, in connection with which he developed an interest in genetic code sequence of amino acids in protein molecules. About 20 essential amino acids are the monomeric links, from which all proteins are built. Studying the issues identified by them as 'the boundary between living and nonliving', K. tried to find the chemical basis of genetics, which, he believed, could be incorporated in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
. Genetics as a science emerged in 1866, when Gregor Mendel formulated the proposition that the 'elements', later called genes, determine the inheritance of physical properties
. Three years later, the Swiss biochemist Friedrich Miescher discovered nucleic acid and showed that it is contained in the cell nucleus. At the turn of the century, scientists have discovered that genes are located in the chromosomes, the structural elements of the cell nucleus. In the first half of XX century. biochemists have determined the chemical nature of nucleic acids, and 40-ies. researchers found that the genes are formed by one of these acids, DNA. It was shown that genes, or DNA, operate biosynthesis (or education) cell proteins, called enzymes, and thus control the biochemical processes in the cell.
When K. began working on his doctoral dissertation at Cambridge, . already known, . that nucleic acids are composed of DNA and RNA (ribonucleic acid), . each of which is formed by molecules of a monosaccharide pentose (deoxyribose or ribose), . phosphate and the four nitrogen bases - adenine, . thymine, . guanine and cytosine (in RNA contains uracil instead of thymine),
. In 1950, Mr.. Erwin Chargaff of Columbia University showed that DNA comprises equal amounts of nitrogen bases. Maurice H.F. Wilkins and his colleague Rosalind Franklin of King's College London conducted X-ray diffraction studies of DNA molecules and concluded that DNA has the shape of the double helix, resembling a spiral staircase.
In 1951, Mr.. -old American biologist James D. Watson invited. to work in the Cavendish Laboratory. Subsequently, they established close professional contacts. Based on earlier studies Chargaff, Wilkins and Franklin, K. and Watson had intended to determine the chemical structure of DNA. Within two years they have developed the spatial structure of the DNA molecule, constructed its model of the balls, pieces of wire and cardboard. According to their model, . DNA is a double helix, . consisting of two chains of monosaccharide and phosphate (dezoksiribozofosfata), . connected by pairs of bases inside the helix, . with adenine connects with thymine, . and guanine - cytosine with, . a base with each other - hydrogen bonds.,
. The model allowed other researchers to clearly present the DNA replication
. Two-chain molecules are separated in the field of hydrogen bonds, like opening zipper, and then on each half of the former DNA molecule is synthesized new. Base sequence acts as a matrix, or pattern for the new molecule.
In 1953, Mr.. K. and Watson completed the model of DNA. In the same year to. received his Ph.D. from Cambridge with a thesis devoted to X-ray diffraction analysis of protein structure. Over the next year he studied the structure of the protein in the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute in New York and lectured at various universities in the U.S.. Returning to Cambridge in 1954, he continued his studies at the Cavendish Laboratory, focusing on deciphering the genetic code. Originally theorist, K. begun jointly with Sydney Brenner study of genetic mutations in the bacteriophage (viruses that infect bacterial cells).
By 1961, Mr.. were discovered three types of RNA: Reporting, ribosomal and transport. K. and his colleagues have proposed a way to read the genetic code. According to the theory K., informational RNA receives genetic information from DNA in the cell nucleus and transferring it to the ribosomes (site of synthesis of proteins) in the cytoplasm. Transport RNA carries amino acids to the ribosome.
Information and ribosomal RNA, interacting with each other, provide connection of amino acids to form protein molecules in the correct sequence. The genetic code triplets are nitrogenous bases of DNA and RNA for each of the 20 amino acids. Genes are composed of many basic triplets that K. called codons, codons are the same in different species.
K., Watson and Wilkins shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962. 'for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and their significance for information transfer in living systems'. AV. Engstrц╤m of the Karolinska Institute said at the award ceremony: 'The opening of the spatial molecular structure ... DNA is extremely important, t. to. outlines the possibilities for understanding the small details of common and individual characteristics of all living '. Engstrц╤m said, . that 'decoding of the double helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid with a specific pairing of nitrogenous bases offers fantastic opportunities to guess the details of control and transfer of genetic information'.,
. In the year of receipt of the Nobel Prize to
. became head of the Biological Laboratory at Cambridge University and a foreign member of the Council Solkovskogo Institute in San Diego (California). In 1977. He moved to San Diego, received an invitation to the post of professor. In Solkovskom institutions to. conducted research in the field of neurobiology, in particular, studied the mechanisms of vision and dreams. In 1983. with the English mathematician Graeme Mitchisonom he suggested that dreams are a side effect of the process by which the human brain is freed from excessive or useless associations, accumulated during wakefulness. The researchers hypothesized that this form of 'reverse doctrine' exists to prevent overloading of the nervous processes.
In his book 'Life as it is: its origin and nature' ( 'Life Itself: Its Origin and Nature', 1981) K. noted a surprising similarity of all life forms. 'With the exception of mitochondria, - he wrote - the genetic code is identical in all living facilities, is currently being studied'. Referring to the discoveries in molecular biology, . paleontology and cosmology, . He suggested, . that life on Earth could come from microorganisms, . were scattered throughout the space from another planet, this theory, he and his colleague Leslie Orgel called 'direct panspermia'.,
. In 1940
. K. married Ruth Doreen Dodd, they had a son. They divorced in 1947, and two years later to. married Odile Speed. They had two daughters.
Numerous awards to. include the Charles Leopold Mayer Prize of the French Academy of Sciences (1961), a scientific prize of the American Research Society (1962), Royal Medal (1972), the Copley medal of the Royal Society (1976). K. - Honorary Member of the Royal Society of London, the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Royal Irish Academy, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American National Academy of Sciences.