Cournand (Cournand), Andre( The American physiologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1956)
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Biography Cournand (Cournand), Andre
September 24, 1895, Mr.. - 19 February 1988
American physiologist Andrц╘ Frц╘dц╘ric Cournand was born in Paris in the family physician Julius Cournand and Margaret (Weber) Cournand. A brilliant footballer and a mountaineer in childhood, K. the age of 9 years decides to become a surgeon. After completion of primary education at the Lycц╘e Condorcet, he gets in 1913. the title of Bachelor of Arts in the University of Paris (Sorbonne). The following year he received a degree in physics, chemistry and biology in a natural faculty, and goes to medical school, but the First World War interrupted his education.
From 1915 to 1918. K. served in the infantry of the French army medical orderly during the period of his service was marked by three combat decorations. At the end of the war to. continuing medical studies at the University of Paris. As a medical intern from 1926 to 1930. He trained at the prominent neurologist George Gillen. Doctorate K. devoted to multiple sclerosis, one of the diseases of the nervous system. During the passage of the internship, he gets a good clinical practice in internal medicine, pediatrics and diseases of the lungs.
After receiving medical degree at the University of Paris in May 1930. K. moved to the United States, where he had received a visiting specialist at Columbia University at Bellevue Hospital in New York. Over the next three years, he rose from assistant to chief of the foreign specialist. In 1934, Mr.. he was appointed professor of medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. In the same year in kardiopulmonologicheskoy lab in Bellevue Hospital, he began his study of the respiratory system, and in 1935. - His twenty-five year collaboration with Dickinson in. Richards. K. and Richards knew about the experiments of Werner Forssmann Ebersvaldskoy surgical clinic in Germany. In 1929, trying to develop affordable method for monitoring the state of the heart with his disease, Forssmann introduced a catheter (long thin tube) into your own elbow vein and propelled him about 61 cm in pulmonary heart. K. and Richards decided to develop a similar method for measuring blood pressure in the cavities of the heart and pulmonary blood flow. In 1930. they began a series of experiments aimed at developing the method of cardiac catheterization proposed Forssman, and by 1936. carried out this manipulation in dogs and chimpanzees in kardiopulmonologicheskoy laboratory in Bellevue. Since the method was new, complex problems have arisen. The first problem concerns the catheter: it was supposed to be tough enough, . to accurately transmit the pressure pulse through the fluid column height of 4 feet (122 cm), . but at the same time quite moving, . to safely move through the vessels and cavities of the heart, . without damaging them,
. The first catheters - with an inner diameter of slightly more than a millimeter - were made of fabric, plastic-impregnated. Catheter filled with liquid (saline), and its outer end fastened to the pressure gauge - instrument used to measure blood pressure.
In 1941, Mr.. K. with an assistant, Dr. Gilmertom Rendzhessom from medical school at New York University made the first since the experiment in 1929, Forsman. catheterization. K. and his colleagues found that the catheters can be left in the bloodstream person up to 7 hours, to prevent the formation of blood clots or other complications than confirmed that this procedure is safe. The method allows measurement of blood pressure in the vessels and cavities of the heart, the oxygen content in blood taken with a catheter, as well as the total amount of oxygen consumed during respiration. Such information would enable doctors to calculate the rate of pulmonary blood flow. The late 40-ies. catheterization was used as a standard method for research in several academic medical centers.
In 1945, Mr.. K. became an American citizen, and the following year was appointed assistant professor of medicine at Medical College, Columbia University. During the Second World War, he led Richards to Bellevue Hospital to study the state of shock and its treatment on behalf of the department of research and development with the U.S. government, as well as to work on the chemical military service. In 1945, Mr.. K. was appointed associate professor of medicine at Medical College, and in 1951. became a full professor.
Using methods of cardiac catheterization for his further studies of light, K. became the first scientist who had spent a catheter through the right atrium and ventricle into the pulmonary artery through which blood from the heart into the lungs. He also made the first measurement of pressure in the pulmonary artery, allowing him to draw a conclusion about the relationship between oxygen in the blood and blood pressure in the pulmonary artery. Laboratory staff, it became clear that emphysema and other chronic lung disease leads to lack of oxygen, or hypoxia, and high blood pressure in the lesser circulation. K. wanted to understand how interconnected the level of blood pressure in the pulmonary artery and the oxygen content in blood. He also wanted to determine whether hypoxia causes an increase in pulmonary blood vessels, and therefore raises blood pressure, or hypoxia causes reflex spasm of pulmonary arterioles with a subsequent increase in blood pressure. In the course of his investigation to. showed that none of these mechanisms is not involved in this process. He suggested that the small arterioles of the pulmonary circulation responded directly to the content of oxygen in the blood. With a low oxygen content of the muscle walls of the arteries and reduces blood pressure increases. Hypothesis to. was confirmed by subsequent research.
To. consistently produced cardiac catheterization in children of different ages with different types of congenital heart. In atrial septal defect is absent in normal opening between the right and left atria. K. able to move the catheter into the left atrium of patients with this defect and to measure blood pressure in the chamber.
In 1956, Mr.. K. shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Forssman and Richards 'for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system'. In a speech in the awarding Goren Liliestrand of the Karolinska Institute said bold experiments and Foresman work to. and Richards, to 'officially endorse this method, which allowed them to triumphantly enter the world of clinical medicine'. Liliestrand continued discussion of the K. Richards and results concerning the study of changes in the lung and factors causing them. Nobel Lecture By. was devoted to 'evaluation of pulmonary blood flow in man with some comments on methodology plan. "
In 1924, Mr.. K. married Sybil Blumer, adopted her baby from her first marriage. They had three daughters. After his death in 1959. By his first wife. in 1963. married his former laboratory assistant, Ruth Fabian. The following year he left office in kardiopulmonologicheskoy lab in Bellevue. Ruth died in 1973, and K. in 1975. married Beatrice in. Berl. The couple lived in New York and Nortemptone (Massachusetts).
Umer K. February 19, 1988, Mr.. in Great Barrington.
Emeritus Professor since 1964, K. holds a silver medal Anders Retziusa Swedish Medical Society (1946), . Albert Lasker Award of the American Society of National Health (1949), . John Phillips Award of the American Medical Association (1952) and the gold medal of the Belgian Royal Academy of Medicine (1956),
. He was also awarded honorary degrees University of Strasbourg, Lyon and Pisa, Columbia University, Free University of Brussels. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, the American Physiological Society, the Association of Thoracic Surgeons and the American Thoracic Society, as well as an honorary member of the London Royal Society of Medicine