Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (Laveran Charles Louis Alphonse)( French biologist and parasitologist Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1907)
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Biography Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (Laveran Charles Louis Alphonse)
June 18, 1845, Mr.. - May 18, 1922
French biologist and parasitologist Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran was born in Paris. His paternal ancestors were doctors, and maternal - officers. Father of Charles Louis Laveran, a military medical inspector and worked as director of the Ecole du Val de Grace. Following in the footsteps of his father, L. enrolled in the Imperial Military Medical School in Strasbourg and in 1867, Mr.. received a medical degree. During the Franco-Prussian War, he worked as a military doctor. In 1874,. he got on a competitive place head of the department of military medicine and epidemiology at the Ecole du Val de Grace. A year later, the young L. wrote a treatise on military medicine, which, in particular, paid attention to malaria. This disease is rare in France, but it represents a serious threat to the health of the French soldiers who served in Algeria. Therefore, when in 1878. expired on the agreed contract term as head of the department, the army authorities sent him to Algeria to study malaria.
. Recognition of the germ theory of fermentation of Louis Pasteur laid in those days, a basis for the theory of microbial origin of disease
. To confirm this theory, researchers were not only found a bacterium or other microorganism that causes a particular disease, but also establish a link between the disease and microorganisms. This problem was first implemented in 1876, Mr.. Robert Koch in the study of anthrax, and has since begun searching pathogens.
During the first two years of work in Algeria A. studied the works of the German scientist Achilles Kelsha. The research object of this scientist was a dark pigment, which is constantly detected in blood vessels, spleen and liver of persons who died from malaria. Since Kelsh studied the dead tissue, he paid no more attention to the development of the disease, and the changes to which it leads. However, he found that the presence of dark pigment serves as a valuable diagnostic sign of malaria. L. confirmed that the pigment is found in this disease, and began to study its role in the development of malaria.
While Kelsh and other scientists studied the dark pigment in the dry-stained blood smears, L. investigated the fresh blood of malaria patients. He noted the presence of leukocytes (white blood cells), containing a dark pigment, but also drew attention to the bright cells, which was also attended by a dark pigment. These corpuscles were not like normal white blood cells and is shaped like a crescent, or a sphere.
November 5, 1880, Mr.. L. took the blood from a young soldier during an attack of fever. Earlier this same patient's blood it identifies the bull in the form of the crescent, at this same time he discovered the spherical formation. Later he wrote that 'at the periphery of these cells were seen thin transparent threads, which is coordinated move, no doubt, could belong only to living beings'. Since L. discovered the malaria parasite. Today, these microorganisms are known as plasmodia, they belong to the type of protozoa, or unicellular organisms, and parasites in red blood cells.
However, within four years the opening of L. ignored or denied. Most scientists could not agree with the fact that flagellates microorganisms found L., are able to exist in the blood. Moreover, to deny even the fact that Malaria is caused by protozoa. However, as the increasing number of researchers were interested in malaria, the ratio of military and civilian doctors to the existence of protozoa parasites in the blood of patients with this disease became less skeptical. By 1885. opening L. received international recognition. Among the scientists have taken the position falciparum theory, was the famous Canadian physician and educator William Osler - professor at Johns Hopkins Medical College.
. Complex and time-consuming work on the study of development and ways of transmission of Plasmodium falciparum was done in 1897
. Ronald Ross. This scientist, convinced of the validity of the L. and Patrick Manson (a leading British specialist in tropical diseases), and led their work in this direction.
In 1884, Mr.. L. was a professor of military medicine in the Val de Grace. In this capacity, he worked for the next 10 years. By this time falciparum theory has become so widely recognized and the work of L. of the simplest and malaria so popular that the French Academy of Sciences awarded him the prestigious Brea. However, the French military doctors were still not convinced of its righteousness, and this restricted the scope of his scientific activity. When expired work in the Val de Grace, L. could not get a laboratory for scientific research. In this regard, in 1896. He was discharged from the army and joined the Pasteur Institute.
The Pasteur Institute L. Finally got the time and opportunity to study other diseases caused by protozoa microorganisms. The most important of his works of this period are devoted to the trypanosome - the simplest, falling to person through the bites of blood-sucking insect (tsetse fly). One of the diseases caused by these microorganisms is trypanosomiasis, or African sleeping sickness. Diseases caused by trypanosomes, like malaria, are usually found only in the tropics. However, the remoteness of the place of L. from the tropical zone has not prevented his research, as well as through the opportunities that were at the Pasteur Institute, he was able to carry out experiments with artificial infection of animals. And though he found no trypanosome, which causes the disease, it is largely promoted the doctrine of the morphology, biology and pathogenic activity of protozoa parasites.
In 1907, Mr.. 'for the study of the role of protozoa in diseases' L. was awarded the Nobel Prize. In connection with the death of King Oscar II of Sweden awards ceremony was canceled. In a speech written for the ceremony, L. talked about his work and about the obstacles that he had to overcome for the approval of their views. He also summarized his research trypanosomes. 'Within 27 years - wrote to LA - I constantly studied a protozoan parasite of humans and animals and, in my opinion, is no exaggeration to say that has contributed significantly to progress in this area. "
. Malaria was, of course, the most significant of diseases caused by protozoa, but the work of L
. by trypanosomes also have considerable importance. On the monetary part of the Nobel Prize L. organized at the Pasteur Institute laboratory of Tropical Medicine. He continued his studies of protozoa, such as leishmaniasis - a tropical disease caused by Leishmania (flagellated protozoa). As a passionate scholar and self-confident man, L. possessed of inexhaustible energy, patience and optimism. He worked on the study of a protozoan parasite of humans and animals, already seriously ill. Only a few months before his death, his work was terminated. L. died in Paris in 1922
His relatives were his sister and wife (he married in 1885). Children with L. not.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, A. was also awarded the Jenner medal of the London Epidemiological Society (1902) and Prize of the Moscow International Congress of Medicine (1906). He was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences, . and foreign member of the Royal Society of London, . Society of Pathologists of Great Britain and Ireland, . Edinburgh Royal Society of Physicians of London and Society of Physicians and Surgeons.,