Lynen (Lynen), Theodore( German biochemist and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1964)
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Biography Lynen (Lynen), Theodore
April 6, 1911, Mr.. - August 6, 1979
German biochemist Feodor Lynen was born in Munich in Frida (Note) and Wilhelm Lynen Linena - Professor Faculty of Engineering, Technical University of Munich. L., received primary education in Munich, became interested in chemistry, when the elder brother gave the house a small chemical laboratory.
At the University of Munich, where he enrolled in 1930, L. studied chemistry under the leadership of Heinrich Wieland. For his thesis on Poisons mushroom Amanita phalloides L. in 1937. a Ph.D.. Monetary grant allowed him to stay in Munich for research on the biochemistry of tumor tissue. During the Second World War he was drafted into the army due to injury of the knee joint, which was in 1932, while skiing. In 1942, Mr.. L. appointed assistant professor (supernumerary lecturer), University of Munich. Increasingly difficult to endure the hardships of wartime, and in 1942. his laboratory moved to Shendorf, a small village near Munich. The following year, the Chemistry Department, University of Munich was completely destroyed. After Germany surrendered, but not involved in L. the policy has been proved, he was allowed to resume teaching at the University. In 1947, Mr.. he was appointed assistant professor of chemistry, University of Munich, and in 1953. was appointed professor. The following year he accepted an invitation to occupy the post of Director of the Institute of Cell Chemistry, Max Planck.
In the autobiographical notes L. so described his attitude to research: 'I believe that perseverance is the most important element in science, this does not exclude, however, the ability to simultaneously address several problems. A scientist wants to be happy, and if he was not lucky in one, he can count on success in another '. For many years, studies L. University of Munich, were devoted to the intermediate metabolism, oxidation and the biosynthesis of fatty acids, the synthesis of cholesterol and rubber.
. Intermediate metabolism includes biochemical cleavage of glucose (carbohydrate) and fat molecules in the process of which is formed in high-energy phosphate molecules that control other biochemical reactions in cells
. Fatty acids - are long chains of carbon atoms with an acid group at one end. Saturated fatty acids have a single chemical bonds between all carbon atoms, unsaturated - one or more double bonds between neighboring atoms. Cholesterol is a complex molecule lipid (fat) of 27 carbon atoms, forming 4 rings, and the residual chain of 8 atoms. Fatty acids and cholesterol play an important role in maintaining stability of cell membranes and may be linked to heart attacks and strokes. Cholesterol is a biochemical precursor of steroid hormones and bile acids.
The biosynthesis of both fatty acids and cholesterol starts with a chemically active form of acetate, a molecule with two atoms of carbon. L. began to study the nature of active acetate even before his work was interrupted by the Second World War. Later, in 1951, he discovered that the active form of acetate is atsetilkoenzim A (an enzyme - a thermostable water-soluble component of the enzyme). Chemical structure atsetilkoenzima A was identified as a thiol (gray-containing) ether acetate.
L. and his colleagues have explained the mechanism of the biosynthesis of fatty acids. The process begins with atsetilkoenzima A, which is connected to carbon dioxide, with the irreversibility of forming malonyl-coenzyme A, trehuglerodnuyu molecule and a chemically active form of malonyl. (Maloney - a radical, . or group of atoms, . which takes part in chemical reactions, . not undergoing change.) formation of long-chain fatty acids is carried out by repeated addition of malonilkoenzima A to atsetilkoenzimnomu end of the growing fatty acid molecules,
. Multienzyme complex (fatty acid synthase) contains all the enzymes necessary for fatty acid synthesis, which occurs as if on a conveyor belt. Control of biosynthesis of fatty acids is carried out by the feedback. For example, the extent of accumulation in the cell fatty acid molecules is suppressed system carboxylase synthesized and less fatty acids. (Carboxylase - an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer reaction of carbon dioxide from the carboxyl groups of certain acids.) Portfolio A. also allowed to clarify the functions of coenzyme biotin - vitamin B complex growth associated with the transfer of carbon dioxide to atsetilkoenzimu And in the process of education malonilkoenzima A. Role atsetilkoenzima And when you break the chain of fatty acids was also demonstrated L.
The study of the biosynthesis of cholesterol L. and his colleagues have shown that the formation of cholesterol begins with the condensation of two molecules atsetilkoenzima And that leads to the formation of four carbon molecule atsetoatsetilkoenzima A, consisting of 4 carbon atoms. The two then joined coenzyme, . form н╡-hydroxy-beta-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CO A), . which is converted to mevalonic acid during the catalytic reaction, . occurs in the presence of HMG-coenzyme A-reductase (enzyme, . providing regenerating effect on the chemical compounds),
. L. showed that mevalonic acid is transformed into a chemically active isoprene, hydrocarbon, which is a basic building unit for the synthesis of cholesterol and other terpene (hydrocarbon) molecules, such as carotene and rubber. Biosynthesis of cholesterol is also regulated through feedback. With the accumulation of cholesterol in the cell system is inhibited by HMG-coenzyme A reductase and the amount of synthesized cholesterol decreases.
For many years, L. corresponded about his work with people born in Germany and emigrated in 1936. in the United States biochemist Konrad Bloch, who conducted similar studies. L. and Bloch shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964. 'for discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol metabolism and fatty acids'. "Mainly due to the fundamental biochemical studies of the winners of this year, we now know in detail, . both occur in the body synthesis and metabolism of cholesterol and fatty acids', . - Said in a welcome speech Syun Bergstrom of the Karolinska Institute,
. 'These processes consist of a series of reactions with a large number of intermediate stages. For example, the formation of cholesterol from acetic acid contains about 30 separate stages - continued Berg Strц╦m. - Failure of this complex mechanism ... in many cases responsible for the development of some of the most serious diseases, especially in the field of cardiovascular disease '.
In 1937, Mr.. L. married Eva Wieland, daughter of Professor, University of Munich, the couple had five children. L. characterized by warmth, sociability, cheerfulness. 'In public, - wrote Hans Krebs - his speech was alive, truthful, sometimes not without a mixture of sarcasm. In personal relationships he was ready to speak publicly on any subject. Chatting with him stimulated the idea, entertained, had a profound impact '. According to Krebs, 'an important factor contributing to the outstanding achievements of LA, were inherent qualities of leadership. He had the ability to inspire and lead the large number of young and old officers'. 'L., - continued Krebs - was probably the last representative of the traditional school ... professors who knew how to organize the work of major research teams for the implementation of certain personal interests. Thanks to its authority and competence, openness and emotional warmth worked with staff readily admitted his undisputed leadership '.
In 1974 ... 1976. L. Acting Director of the Max Planck Institute. He died in 1979. after surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Among the many awards L. Carl Neuberg Medal of the American Society of European Chemists (1954) and the first medal awarded by Otto Warburg Germanskogo Biochemical Society (1963). He was a member of numerous scientific societies and the holder of honorary degrees from seven universities.