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George Minot

( American hematologist and patofiziologNobelevskaya Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1934)

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Biography George Minot
December 2, 1885, Mr.. - 25 February 1950
George Richards Minot, American hematologist and pathophysiology, born in Boston, in the family, known in New England for its intellectuals and doctors, whose ancestors emigrated from England in 1630-ies. M. was the eldest of three sons of Elizabeth (Whitney) Minot and physician James Jackson Minot. Parents who thought that the boy's fragile health, he took away the winter in Florida or California, where he developed a strong interest in the History of Science. In adolescence, he published two articles about butterflies: 'Pupae Nelitaea gabbe' (1902) and 'Dangerous tussock Butterflies' (1903).
After training in the privileged private schools one of the most prestigious areas of Boston M. enrolled at Harvard University and in 1908. received a Bachelor of Arts degree and four years later - a medical degree. As a medical student, M. worked in a clinic for outpatients and it was then became interested in hematology - the science of blood. One of his teachers at Harvard, was Homer Wright, MD, developed the technique of coloring agents for microscopic examination of blood. Being in internship Massachusetts General Hospital, M. studied blood diseases, and for the rest of his life he had no interest in the problem disappeared nutrition anemia patients. 1913 ... 1915. he spent in the hospital at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore (Maryland) in the position of the physician in the laboratory of William Howell - physiologist, devoted to the study of blood coagulation. Job M. content in the blood antithrombin later helped Howell highlight anticoagulants heparin.
In l9l5 g. M. had joined the staff of Harvard Medical School, while he went to work at the Massachusetts General Hospital assistant medical. The atmosphere of the hospital contributed to the use of scientific methods in clinical medicine. Studies M. and Professor Roger Lee pointed out that in the formation of blood clots participate platelets - small platelets. M. identified as characteristic features of various types of anemia, with particular interest is his malignant anemia. As the content of the erythrocytes decreased to dangerous levels in patients with malignant anemia appeared signs that in those days was called blood thinners (polyplasmia). It was believed that the cause of this condition was unknown factor responsible for the destruction of red blood cells. The disease is a sudden relapse, treatment with arsenic or splenectomy (removal of the spleen) brought only temporary relief: there was no other treatment, and almost always inevitable death occurs. Working in the hospital at Johns Hopkins in 1914, M. noticed that during remission in large quantities in the blood comes reticulocytes (less mature erythrocytes). A few years later turned out that this observation is important.
During the First World War, M. studied anemia arising from industrial workers exposed to toxic effects of chemicals. In 1917, Mr.. He was appointed chief physician Memorial Hospital Collis P. Huntington - clinical cancer research center at Harvard - and continued to study nutrition of patients with malignant anemia.
In 1921, Mr.. first emerged as a result of diabetes health M. deteriorated. This happened a year before the discovery of insulin, Frederick J. Banting and Charles by West. Basic method of treatment of the disease was at that time, low-calorie diet, but a Boston specialist in the field of diabetes Elliott Joslin was able to get to his patient in 1922. first portion of the newly produced insulin. A strict diet and insulin injections for many years to prolong the life of M.
In 1921, Mr.. He met with a group of doctors engaged in private practice. One of them, William P. Murphy would later become co-operate with. Two years later, M. headed the medical service at Huntington Memorial Hospital and was joined the staff of Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. By this time his interest in pernicious anemia has become more distinct character. Earlier observations on the diet led him to believe that 'certain types of food may be useful in patients with malignant anemia'. In previous studies of M. observed extremely unbalanced diet, many patients with malignant anemia. Moreover, he noted that the symptoms of malignant anemia are similar to those in the sprue, pellagra, and several other forms of anemia, treatable with diet.
Meanwhile, George X. Whipple familiar M. at Johns Hopkins Hospital, completed the experiments, during which he first aroused dogs bleeding and anemia, and then sorted out what types of food contribute to the restoration of the number of erythrocytes. He found that while some kinds of meat (lamb, beef) and vegetables and are quite effective, the best therapeutic impact the use of liver. Once M. included raw liver in the diet, appointed his private patients, and found to improve their health, he and Murphy began to introduce her to the diet of hospital patients. In 1926, Mr.. conference of the Association of American doctors, they reported that 45 patients 'within two weeks there was a clear clinical improvement'. Evidence of improvement was also an increase in the number of reticulocytes, but to achieve good performance, patients should have to eat half a pound of liver a day.
. Works in the Harvard Medical School, a specialist in physical chemistry, Edwin Cohn had received and purified extract of the liver, suitable for oral and intravenous
. In 50 ... 100 times stronger than on the affected than the liver, the extract was not only easy to use, but cheaper. The rise in the number of reticulocytes in patients with an indicator to determine the strength of prescribers. When an extract of the liver was carried out the pharmaceutical industry, oversee standardization produced parties had been entrusted to the newly formed Harvard Committee on pernicious anemia, which became M. In 1936, Mr.. M. became a member of the Advisory Council for the prevention of anemia, . organized by the United States Pharmacopoeia for the determination of the standard dosage of the extract with a specific reaction of reticulocytes, . used as an indicator of the strength of each manufactured product.,
. In 1928, Mr.
. M. was appointed professor of medicine at Harvard University and also director Torndaykovskoy Memorial Laboratory at the Boston City Hospital. Occupying these positions, . He continued to study various forms of anemia and disease, . caused by malnutrition; dealing with medical students, . encouraged them to exercise a special interest in social and economic aspects of life of patients, . held numerous meetings with doctors from other countries, . related blood diseases.,
. M., Murphy and Whipple were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
. Presenting the award, . Israel Holm-Gren from the Karolinska Institute, summed up the achievements of the three winners: 'You are to newly illuminate the process of regeneration of blood, . - He said, . - You opened the function of the liver, . previously unknown to science, . you have developed and perfected a new method of treatment of anemia ..,
. This new method has already saved thousands of lives and the future promises to save from death a countless number of people '.
By the time of presentation awards were still alive three-quarters of the 45 patients treated eight years ago. Only in 1948. found that the cause of pernicious anemia is a lack of vitamin B12 is contained in the liver and stimulates the formation of reticulocytes.
In the early 40-ies. y M. signs of vascular and neurological complications of diabetes, for which in 1947. followed by a stroke, I left him partially paralyzed. After retiring from the post of Director Torndaykovskoy laboratory in 1948, he continued an active interest in medical research. In addition, M. consultant at the Boston City Hospital (1928 ... 1948), Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston (1928 ... 1950) and Beth Israel Hospital in Boston (1928 ... 1950).
In 1915, Mr.. M. married Marian Lenses Weld, with whom he had two daughters and a son. An avid lover of sailing and gardening, M. also deeply fond of philately and liked to observe nature. V.B. Castle, a member of M. at Harvard, believes that M. 'was by nature a naturalist who was interested in flowers, insects, as well as all organic aspects of the lives of his patients along with their emotional and social problems'. He died in Bruklayne (Massachusetts), February 25, 1950
Among the numerous awards and prizes M. - Kober Medal of the Association of American Physicians (1929), . Prize Cameron and honor to give lectures at Edinburgh University (1930), . Medal Moksona London Royal College of Physicians (1933) and the medal "For Distinguished Service 'of the American Medical Association (1945),
. He was a member of the American Society of Clinical Research, Association of American Physicians, the American Clinical and climatological Association, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences. He was also in the American Medical Association, American College of Physicians and the American Philosophical Society. In 1928, Mr.. Harvard University awarded him an honorary doctorate degree.

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George Minot, photo, biography
George Minot, photo, biography George Minot  American hematologist and patofiziologNobelevskaya Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1934, photo, biography
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