AMY (Macleod), John J. R.( Scottish physiologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1923)
Comments for AMY (Macleod), John J. R.
Biography AMY (Macleod), John J. R.
September 6, 1876, Mr.. - March 16, 1935
Scottish physiologist John James Riccardo McLeod was born in Cluny, near Dankelda (county of Perthshire), Jane Guthrie (Makuolter) McLeod and Robert McLeod, a priest. Educated at Aberdeen High School, F. in 1893. entered Marpshal College, University of Aberdeen, in order to practice medicine. He brilliantly studied and in 1898. with honors from University with a bachelor's degree in medicine and surgery.
Anderson grant allocated to foreign scientists, have allowed M. hold the next year at the Institute of Physiology, University of Leipzig in Germany. He then worked as an assistant professor of physiology at the Medical School at the London hospital, where two years later was appointed professor of biochemistry. At the same time, he received a research fellowship McKinnon Royal Society of London. In 1903, Mr.. M. with other authors published a textbook 'Practical Physiology' ( "Practical Physiology"), . then moved to the United States, . where, . despite 27 years of age, . was promoted to professor of physiology at the University of Western Reserve (now Keiz-Western Reserve) in Cleveland (Ohio),
. Two years later he collaborates with Sir Leonard Hill, in writing this book 'Recent Advances in Physiology' ( "Recent Advance in Physiology"); also beginning to study carbohydrate metabolism and disease, . now known under the name 'diabetes'.,
. The first clinical description of diabetes dates back to I
. n. e., when the Roman doctors and Aret Celsus described the disease with symptoms such as excessive urination, excessive thirst and weight loss. In the XVII century. English physician Thomas Willis observed that patients with such symptoms urine has a sweetish taste. Later, . in the XIX century., . found, . that in the small intestine is the transformation of starch into glucose and its absorption; glucose then enters from the bloodstream into the liver, . where is deposited in the form of glycogen (krahmalopodobnogo substance, . consisting of residues of glucose molecules, . connected in the chain),
. In 1889, Mr.. German physician Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski surgically removed the pancreas in dogs and watched in the future of these animals is a sharp rise in the concentration of glucose in the blood and urine, . and the presence of symptoms, . Similar to the clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus.,
. The pancreas consists of two main types of secretory cells
. Acinar cells synthesize and secrete a pancreatic duct, digestive enzymes, then the enzymes enter the small intestine, where it participates in the process of digestion. Islet cells (found in the islets of Langerhans - the structures of irregular shape, located in the pancreas) synthesize and release insulin directly into the blood. Insulin promotes glucose uptake by cells, where it is used as an energy source. If the cells can not receive glucose, they begin to utilize fat (in the form of fatty acids). As a result of biochemical lipolysis in a shortage of insulin in the blood and tissues increases dramatically the content of ketone bodies and the shift of acid-base balance of the organism in the direction of acidosis, ie. developed diabetic ketoacidosis. Prior to the use of insulin for clinical purposes is a condition usually is fatal.
The University of Western Reserve M. developed an experimental model of glycosuria (ie. glucose in the urine, whereas usually it is not in it), and conducted research to determine the role of the central nervous system in the development of diabetes. He also wrote numerous articles on the metabolism of carbohydrates and a series of 12 articles on the glycosuria. In 1916, Mr.. British physiologist Edward A. Sharpy-Schafer suggested that a hypothetical substance called the pancreas, which has the effect of reducing blood sugar, insulaynom (M. subsequently replaced by the term for 'insulin'). Although M. saw clearly the connection between the pancreas and diabetes, he could not reliably determine what role this particular body in the development of the disease.
In 1918, Mr.. M. was appointed professor of physiology at the University of Toronto in Canada. The following year, turned to him for help a young Canadian surgeon Frederick G. Bunting, who asked him to provide the necessary equipment for a research project on diabetes. Bunting particularly interested in the secretion of insulin from islet cells of the pancreas. In October of last year, Banting read an article by Moses Barron, which described the blockade of pancreatic duct gallstones and developing as a result of atrophy of the acinar cells. Bunting hoped, . what, . 'bandaging ducts and wait for some time, . necessary for the destruction of acinar cells, . be able to find a way to get extract islet cells, . not exposed to the damaging effects of trypsin and other pancreatic enzymes',
. At the suggestion F.R. Miller, one of the professors of the University of Western Ontario, Banting described his idea of Moscow, who in his position could provide the University of Toronto needed for research equipment.
According to Bunting, M. initially ridiculed the proposed project to him, only after repeated visits to his office Bunting finally received the necessary support, . which has resulted in the provision of laboratory facilities and equipment, . in the allocation of ten experimental dogs, . as well as providing assistance to medical student Charles Best, . who could well determine the content of sugar in the blood and urine,
. In May, 1921. Bunting, assistiruemy Best, University of Toronto began a series of experiments, while M. on a vacation in Scotland. By his return in August, Banting and Best succeeded in extracting insulin from pancreatic islet tissue of dogs. Experimenters have also removed the pancreas from a dog, and then entered the extract islet tissue dying from ketoacidosis animal. The dog recovered: blood glucose decreased to normal limits, and urine glucose generally disappeared.
. Somewhat later in the year, Banting and Best reported the results of their research at a meeting of the club 'Physiological magazine' ( "Physiological Journal"), University of Toronto, . and a month later again addressed the American Physiological Society in New Haven (Conn.),
. This time, the present report, and Moscow, which subsequently used all the capabilities of its faculty to achieve extraction and purification of large amounts of insulin. When this needed help biochemist Dzh.B. Kollipa, he was connected to the work. In January 1922. Children's Hospital, Mr.. Toronto was first carried out successfully treated with insulin 14-year-old boy, two years and suffered from severe diabetes. Insulin from the pancreas were slaughtered at the slaughter of cattle.
In late 1922. laboratories Konno, University of Toronto and the American pharmaceutical firm 'Eli Lilly and Company' was established commercial production of insulin. Patent rights for the production of insulin were transferred to the Canadian Council on Health Research. None of the members of the working group has not learned that any benefits.
M. and Banting shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923. 'for the discovery of insulin'. Learning that Best was not among the winners, Banting had threatened to abandon the awards, but, heeding the advice, did not do. He, however, gave half the money received Best, publicly announcing their contribution to the discovery of insulin. Subsequently, M. also provided some money Kollipu. (Members of the Nobel committee later agreed to a confidential opinion that Besta should have been included in the number of awardees.)
Two years after receiving the Nobel Prize M. published a book entitled 'Insulin and its application in diabetes' ( "Insulin anb It's Uses in Diabetes") and one year became president of the Royal Canadian Institute. In 1926, Mr.. came out of his work 'The metabolism of carbohydrates and insulin' ( "Carbohydrate Metabolism and Insulin"), and two years later - a series of lectures given to them at Princeton University and entitled 'Fuel Life' ( "Fuel for Life"). At the same time M. was promoted to professor - head of the physiological studies in Aberdeen University, where he later became dean of the Medical Faculty. He was respected for his organizational skills, high level of research, both for the ability to express ideas in lectures and facts in order to stimulate the curiosity of students.
In 1903, Mr.. M. married Mary Watson Makuolter; children they had not.
M. died March 16, 1935, Mr.. from severe arthritis, which left him disabled.
M. was a member of the American Physiological Society and the Royal Canadian Institute, . foreign member of the Philadelphia College of Physicians, . honorary member of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Rome, . member of the Royal Society of Canada, . Royal Society of London and the Royal College of Physicians.,