Otto Meyerhof( German-American boihimik Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1922)
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Biography Otto Meyerhof
April 12, 1884, Mr.. - October 6, 1951
German-American boihimik Otto Fritz Meyerhof was born in Hanover, a Jewish merchant of Felix Meyerhoff and Bettina (May) Meyerhof. The family, which included also an older sister and two younger brothers, moved to Berlin, where Otto received his secondary education, graduating from high school William. When he was 16 years old, he was bedridden due to kidney disease. M. I read a lot during his illness, especially works of Goethe. Convalescent Otto along with his cousin Max, engaged in physics, went to the four-month trip to Egypt. Since then, the M. appeared a strong interest in archeology.
Recovered, M. began to study medicine at the University of Freiburg, Berlin, Strasbourg and Heidelberg, following the German tradition of study of at least two universities. In 1909, Mr.. M. received a medical degree at the University of Heidelberg, . thesis on the psychological theory of mental disorders, . and began to write a book 'On the psychological theory of mental disorders' ( "Beitrage zur psychologischen Theorie der Geistesstorungen"), . published in 1912,
. He also published an essay on methods of research used by Goethe and that M. considered insufficient inductive. During the next three years, M. worked as an assistant in the department of Internal Medicine Heidelberg clinic, led by Ludwig Krц╤ll. It was there that he met Otto Warburg, which has had at M. such influence that he left training in psychology and psychiatry, switching to the experimental biochemical studies. A time he worked at the zoological station in Naples - International Center for Biological Research. In 1912, Mr.. M. becomes the employee of the physiological department, Keele University, and the next year by readers of zoology.
M. first applied the concept of thermodynamics for the analysis of cellular reactions. He outlined his theory in a lecture on the bioenergetics of cellular processes, delivered in July 1913. An expanded version of the lecture was published the Rockefeller Institute in New York in 1924. entitled 'The dynamics of life phenomena' ( "Dynamics of Life Phenomena"). While the details of carbohydrate metabolism were not yet entirely clear. Was known, . that carbohydrates are deposited in the liver and muscle cells as glycogen - krahmalopodobnogo connection, . composed of chains of glucose molecules, . and then, . that the biochemical process of splitting of glycogen and glucose (glycolysis) in two ways: aerobic, . need oxygen, . and anaerobic, . occurring in the absence of oxygen,
. Aerobic breakdown of carbohydrates ends with the formation of carbon dioxide and water anaerobic - the formation of lactic acid and lactate. Experimental technique M. included the identification and comparison of correlations between cellular absorption of oxygen (respiration), cell heat production (thermodynamics), biochemical processes in cells and the mechanical work performed by specialized muscle cells. In 1917, Mr.. He showed that the carbohydrate enzyme systems of yeast and animal cells are similar, thus confirming the concept of biochemical unity of life.
In 1918, almost at the end of World War I, M. a short time he served on the French front medical officer Germanic army. After the war he was appointed assistant professor at the University of Kiel. Resuming his studies, M. began to seek an explanation of the cellular functions of the position of Physical Chemistry. Studying the muscle of the frog, he measured the amount of absorbed oxygen and formed lactic acid as the presence and absence of oxygen. He showed that the anaerobic glycolysis, lactic acid is formed and that the presence of oxygen, only 1 / 5 of cell lactic acid (lactate) completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Consequently, M. concluded that cellular energy is derived from oxidative processes used by cells in a cyclic reaction to re-synthesis of glucose molecules from the residual lactate contained in the cells.
In 1923, Mr.. M. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922. 'for the discovery of the close relationship between the process of oxygen uptake and metabolism of lactic acid in muscle'. M. shared the prize with Archibald in. Hill, who studied the heat production by muscle contraction. 'The true life of a scientist does not consist of nominations and awards - said M. in his Nobel lecture - they are only a finite, but rather a by-product of its. It is a revolutionary thought, new theories, fundamental discoveries, which are shown to be used for such purposes of the mind, as a work of art, as a result of the creative act '. M. also praised the merits of Hill, whose work, 'beaming, as a guiding beacon through the sea mist, helped to stay on course and avoid the shoals. "
Shortly after receiving the Nobel Prize M. not passed to the post of head of department, Keele University, probably because of anti-Semitism. However, members of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society was organized for him a laboratory, and in 1924. He was appointed professor at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin, where he trained a galaxy of biochemists, among whom Hans Krebs, Fritz Lipmann, and Severo Ochoa. After one of his staff, Karl Lohmann, found that the most important molecule that controls the biochemical reactions - that adenosine triphosphate (ATP), M. Lohman and described the role of ATP in muscle contraction. In 1929, Mr.. M. was appointed director of the newly organized Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg, the Kaiser Wilhelm. In his book 'Biochemical studies on muscle cells' ( "Biochemical Investigations in Muscle Cells", . 1930), he suggested, . that all biological phenomena, . except for certain mental processes, . theoretically be explained by physical-chemical concepts.,
. In 1932
. M. and his colleagues extracted enzymes for essential biochemical reactions occurring in the conversion of glucose to lactic acid. This basic cell path of carbohydrate metabolism is also called by Embdena - Meyerhoff. (Gustav Embden, died suddenly in 1933, made a great contribution to the theoretical development of this scheme.)
Alarmed by the rise of Nazism, M. with his wife in 1938. leaving Germany. They moved first to Switzerland and then to Paris, where M. continued his studies at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Biology. After the capture of Germanic troops in Paris in 1940. wife sought refuge in southern France, then walked across the Pyrenees into Spain and, finally, in the United States. Here M. met with his counterpart, Hill, who managed to get a Rockefeller Foundation grant for the establishment of the University of Pennsylvania professor specifically for M. In the summer months it continues to engage in bioenergy cellular processes in the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole (Mass.). In 1944, Mr.. severe heart attack at 10 months, chained him to the bed. Two years later he became an American citizen. His colleagues and students have prepared a commemorative edition of 'Metabolism and functions' ( "Metabolism and Function") and presented its M. day 65 th anniversary in 1949, when he was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
In 1914, Mr.. M. married artist Hedwig Schallenberg, the couple had two sons and a daughter. M. fond of philosophy, art, archeology and wrote poems. He was always worried about the problem of interaction between science and society.
M. died Oct. 6, 1951, Mr.. in Philadelphia, at the age of 67 after a second heart attack.
M. was a member of the Royal Society of London and Garveevskogo society, the holder of an honorary degree from Edinburgh University, as well as many other awards and honors.