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Rous (Rous), Peyton

( American Pathologists Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1966)

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Biography Rous (Rous), Peyton
October 5, 1879, Mr.. - 16 February 1970
American pathologist Francis Peyton Rous was born in Baltimore (Maryland), the son of Charles Francis Rous, the purchaser of grain, and Anderson, Francis Rous (Wood), daughter of a judge from Texas. The family had three children; P. the firstborn and only son. When P. was 11 years old, his father died, leaving a family of very modest means. R. graduated from public schools in Baltimore. Desire P. to college could be implemented only after he received a scholarship from the Johns Hopkins University. In 1900, Mr.. He has bachelor and enrolled in medical school of the University.
In the second year in medical school R. tuberculosis. For treatment, he went to Texas, where his uncle found him to work on a ranch near r. Kuana, located north of Abilene, on the border with Oklahoma. Although P. a man not athletic, he liked the work of a cowboy. Thanks to the time of his return to Johns Hopkins University, he was able to understand the truth that uneducated people can be as noble and attractive as those who learned a lot.
In 1905, Mr.. R. received a medical degree and enrolled in the internship at Johns Hopkins University. However, studies in medical practice did not satisfy him, and he accepted the offer to become assistant in pathology at the University of Michigan. In 1907 he spent in Dresden (Germany), studying the pathological anatomy. Upon returning to the United States was given the opportunity to work under the guidance of Simon Flexner at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now - Rockefeller University). His first job was to study lymphocytes - cells that specialize in the formation of antibodies against viruses and other foreign agents. At the Rockefeller Institute for R. quickly moved up the career ladder, and in 1920,. He became a full-time teacher of the Institute.
In 1909, Mr.. One farmer showed P. Plymouth Rock chicken breeds with the tumor in the sternum. R. did a biopsy tumor tissue obtained examined under a microscope and showed spindle sarcoma - a malignant tumor formed by connective tissue and typical sarcomas reborn in the form of spindle cells. R. milled tumor tissue, obtained cell-free extracts in saline and introduced them to other chickens of the same breed. One of them also developed sarcoma. Then P. using similar techniques has made the transfer of tumor chickens several generations. Two years later in the article, . published in 'Journal of Experimental Medicine' ( 'Journal of Experimental Medicine'), . He wrote: 'Neoplasms were the same, . as the true tumor, . and therefore their transmission through cell-free filtrate is crucial '.,
. Transfer hens tumors with cell-free extracts (ie
. extracts of tumor tissues, from which were removed by filtering cells) suggests that the cause of these tumors is a virus. However, this fact was not entirely new, since a few years earlier, two Danish scientists have made the transfer with the help of cell-free filtrate leukemia birds. But because it was thought that leukemia is not related to cancer, this post has attracted special attention. In addition, while the causes and development of cancer dominated the theory of the German school of pathology, led by Rudolf Virchow. This scientist and his team successfully opposed the supporters of the theory of an infectious origin of cancer, which were headed by Robert Koch. In this regard, the assumption P. that experimental sarcoma in chickens caused by a virus, for two decades did not cause any response. Only many years later, the tumor became known as the Rous sarcoma, and a hypothetical factor leading to its development - Rous sarcoma virus. Only in the 30-ies. hypothesis P. was confirmed, and 40-ies. Rous sarcoma virus was detected by electron microscopy.
During the first two years at the Rockefeller Institute for R. with his team has identified two experimental tumors in birds, caused by cell-free filtrates. In 1914, Mr.. R. suggested that all three experimental tumors belong to the 'new group of diseases that cause various tumors in chickens'. In addition, he and his colleagues tried to identify conditions that promote and prevent the growth of experimental tumors, as well as to find similarities and differences between these tumors and 'natural' tumors in mammals.
. The outbreak of the First World War forced P
. and his colleague J. Turner's work towards developing methods of storing blood. Soon, they created a solution comprising acid citrate and dextrose. In this solution, a solution called ACD (from the words: acid, citrate, dextrose - acid citrate, dextrose), red blood cells remained three to four weeks, and during all this time, there was blood suitable for transfusion. ACD solution was used for this purpose today.
Since 1918. R. 8 years was a member of the National Research Council, working vice-president of medical offices and executive committee. Shortly after the First World War, he and his colleagues developed a new method for separating cells using trypsin - an enzyme produced by the pancreas, and proteolysis.
In the early 20-ies. R. studied the physiological functions of the liver and gall bladder. Together with his team, he found that even with occlusion of two-thirds of biliary bile pigments substantial delay does not occur. In addition, they showed that the bile is reabsorbed (sucked back) in the intestine and comes back to the liver for a special system of vessels. Scientists also proved that in the gall bladder is the absorption of water and the concentration of bile, and this was the physiological basis of clinical specimens for the presence of gallstones. In addition, they found that bilirubin (bile pigment) resulting from the breakdown of hemoglobin and with accumulation of bilirubin in the blood occurs jaundice.
In the early 30-ies. R. and his staff again began the pilot study of cancer by studying the malignant transformation of papillomas (benign tumors) and tumors in rabbits, rats and mice. They found that the growth and degeneration of these tumors are related to the interaction between the oncogenic agent - in their experiments used coal tar - and some environmental factors.
In 1942, Mr.. R. proposed 3 hypotheses concerning the mechanisms of tumor. According to the first of them, viruses can infect the body even during fetal development or at a young age, and, according to R., 'in most cases quite evident. However, if the cells infected with the virus, acts provocation that could begin the process of degeneration of cells and tumor growth '. According to the second hypothesis, tumor, which at first glance are formed spontaneously, may be caused by chemical carcinogens (P. called them provocative carcinogenic). Finally, the third hypothesis was that the 'dormant' viruses and chemical carcinogens can interact, causing a spontaneous and seemingly, the appearance of tumors.
In 1966, Mr.. R. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery of oncogenic viruses'. This premium P. shared with Charles Huggins. In his Nobel speech called 'The challenge of tumor cells to man' ( 'The Challenge to Man of the Neoplastic Cell'), P. spoke about the unique challenges facing researchers tumors. Although scientists have made some progress on this path, he said, 'all the achievements thus far are episodic'.
In 1915, Mr.. R. married Marion Eckford Dekey. They had three daughters. After the Second World War, the couple bought a house in West Cornwall (Conn.), where P. rested in the summer, fishing and gardening. Renato Dulbekko once said about P. as 'a man wholly dedicated, broad-minded scholar, strong, good and with a good sense of humor'. Three years after receiving the Nobel Prize in P. was detected gastric cancer, and 16 February 1970. He died in New York.
P. been awarded many prizes, t.ch. Walker Prize of the London Royal College of Surgeons (1941), . Medals Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko, National Academy of Sciences (1954), . Lasker Award of the American Public Health Association (1958), . National medals 'for scientific achievement' of the National Science Foundation (1966) and medals Cleveland American Cancer Society (1966).,
. R
. was a member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences, . American Association for the Advancement of Science, . Weizmann Institute in Israel, . National Academy of Sciences, . Association of American Physicians, . American Society of Experimental Pathology, . American Philosophical Society and the American Cancer Research Association.,

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