Samuelsson (Samuelsson), Bengt( Swedish biochemist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1982)
Comments for Samuelsson (Samuelsson), Bengt
Biography Samuelsson (Samuelsson), Bengt
genus. May 21, 1934
Swedish biochemist Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson was born in the port city of Halmstad. His parents were Christina and Anders Samuelsson. At the end of the local school. enrolled in the College of Medicine, Lund University, where he began working in a research laboratory Suna Bergstrema, professor of physiological chemistry. In 1958, Mr.. S. with the research group Bergstrema moved to Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. Here C. studied medicine and biochemistry. In 1960, Mr.. He defended his thesis and received his doctorate in medical sciences. The following year he was appointed assistant professor of medical chemistry at Karolinska Institutet. From 1961 to 1962. S. worked as research assistant at the Department of Chemistry at Harvard University in the laboratory E.D. Cory, studying theoretical chemistry and synthesis of organic compounds.
In 1962. S. returned to the Karolinska Institute, and again began to work with Bergstremom. Bergstrom then studied a group of biological compounds called prostaglandins. For the first time these compounds were discovered gynecologists from the college of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University in 1930. Through artificial insemination, these specialists have found that the seminal fluid causes a change of tone of the uterus. Somewhat later, in the same year, Ulf von Euler isolated from sheep seminal fluid substance, also stimulating the contractile function of the uterus. Euler named the substance is a prostaglandin, since it was first discovered in the secret of the prostate, or prostate. He kept the extracts obtained during the Second World War and in 1945. In the late 50-ies. BergstrцTm isolated, purified and identified the chemical formula of the two prostaglandins.
Working with Bergstremom, C. studied the production of prostaglandins in living organisms. Two years after beginning work, he found that they are formed from arachidonic acid - the unsaturated fatty acid contained in some meat and vegetable products. Over the next few years he learned the way of formation of prostaglandins, and found that arachidonic acid under the action of the enzyme is transformed into so-called endoperoksidy; from one of these substances in the future form prostaglandins. Then C. found that arachidonic acid and enzyme systems of education prostaglandins are present in all nucleated cells of animals. This different cells form various prostaglandins, and various prostaglandins, in turn, carry varying biological functions. The most studied of them - groups of prostaglandins E and F - can be applied in clinical medicine.
Discovery Bergstrema and C. gave impetus to a number of studies of biological functions of prostaglandins, which started in Karolinska Institutet. It was found that the group E prostaglandins cause reduction of tone walls of blood vessels and lowering blood pressure, ie. may be useful agents for the treatment of patients with certain cardiovascular diseases. In addition, these prostaglandins protect the gastric mucosa against the formation of ulcers, as well as when taking aspirin and other drugs. Prostaglandin F group caused the reduction of smooth muscle fibers of the blood vessels and increased blood pressure, as well as uterine contractions and therefore used for the artificial termination of pregnancy.
From 1967 to 1972. S. He was a professor of medical chemistry at the Stockholm Royal Veterinary College. Over the next 10 years he was professor of chemistry and chair of Chemistry, Karolinska Institute and at the same time continued research in the field of biochemistry endoperoksidov and their derivatives. In the early 70-ies. S. found that in platelets (platelets involved in blood clotting) is one of endoperoksidov converted into a substance which he called tromboksanom. Because aspirin has been able to influence the activity of one of tromboksanov, this drug in low doses was used to prevent blood clotting in patients at high risk of myocardial infarction due to thrombosis of coronary vessels.
. In 70-ies
. S. found that white blood cells (leukocytes), arachidonic acid under the influence of the enzyme is transformed into another substance, which he called leukotrienes. These substances are warning attacks of bronchial asthma and the development of anaphylaxis (a state occurring as a result of exposure to certain foreign substances, such as bee venom, and that can lead to shock). Leukotrienes enhance the reduction of the walls of blood vessels and bronchioles (small bronchi) and increase the permeability of blood vessels for the fluid, causing swelling of tissues. Under the action of one of leukotrienes leucocytes better interact with the damaged tissue or inflammatory changes, they absorb and destroy the products of decay of these tissues. Steroid drugs (such as cortisone and its derivatives) are involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes.
Learning From. arachidonic acid and prostaglandins, . discovery of the fact, . as one of endoperoksidov converted into a substance, . called tromboksanom, . and the detection of leukocytes in the transformation of arachidonic acids and leukotrienes in the slots - it is an important contribution in various fields of medical science, . such therapy.,
. In 1976
. S. worked as a visiting professor at Harvard University, and the next year - the MIT. During the next five years, he worked as dean of the Medical Faculty of the Karolinska Institute.
In 1982, Mr.. S. with Bergstremom and John R. Wayne received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for "discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances'. As said in the congratulatory speech scientist at the Karolinska Institute, Bengt Perna, 'if Berg StrцTm first isolated prostaglandins and showed that they are elements of an entire physiological system,. not only identified and established the structure of some of the major components of the system ', but' to establish the relationship between its various components'.
In 1958, Mr.. S. married Inge Karin Bergstein. In the family they have one son and two daughters. The youngest of the three scientists who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1982, with. conducts regular research.
In the year of receipt of the Nobel Prize with. was appointed rector of the Karolinska Institute. He is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and a foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Besides, . He was awarded the prize for medicine Anders Yar, . awarded by the University of Oslo (1970), . Prize Louisa Gross Horwitz, Columbia University (1975), . Albert Lasker Award for basic medical research (1977) and Bara Holberg Medal of the Swedish Chemical Society (1982).,