Edward Tate( The American geneticist and biochemist who received the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (jointly with Dzh.Bidlom and Dzh.Lederbergom) for the study of the foundations of heredity of microo)
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Biography Edward Tate
December 14, 1909, Mr.. - November 5, 1975
. American geneticist and biochemist Edward Lowry Tate was born in Boulder (Colorado) and was the eldest of three children of Arthur Lauri Teytema, . physician and pharmacologist of the University of Wisconsin, . and Meybel (Webb) Tate, . one of the first women, . graduated from the University of Colorado,
. Edward received his primary education in the experimental school, University of Chicago. Within two years he studied at the university, and then moved to the University of Wisconsin, where in 1931. he was awarded the title of bachelor, and in 1932. - Master of Science. In 1934, a thesis devoted to the peculiarities of nutrition and cellular biochemistry of bacteria, T. received the title of Doctor of Philosophy. The following year he worked as a researcher in biochemistry at Wisconsin, and in 1936. he was awarded a scholarship of the main department of education for one year of study at Utrecht University in the Netherlands.
After returning to the U.S. in 1937. T. works as an assistant researcher in the department of biological sciences at Stanford University (California), where 4 years later became an assistant professor. His early studies at Stanford, is studying dietary and cellular biochemistry of microorganisms. He showed that for the growth of Neurospora cracca, pink mold formed on the bread, requires biotin, vitamin B. They also described the feeding habits of the fruit fly, Drosophila, which is commonly used for genetic research, and identified kinurenin, a substance that affects the color of her eyes. In the early 40-ies. T. collaborated with geneticist George Y. Beadle, professor of Stanford, to determine the chemical processes involved in the genetic mechanisms of Neurospora.
. Start genetics was laid in 1866, when Gregor Mendel, an Austrian naturalist, who lived in Czechoslovakia, published his theory of the laws of heredity, based on an analysis of the results of hybridization of pea varieties
. Mendel speculated that the 'elements', now called genes control the inheritance of physical traits and manifested through these signs. Mendel's research showed that some genes are dominant, and others - recessive. Dominant gene may occur, if it carries only one chromosome of the pair, the recessive gene is shown only at its location in both chromosomes of the pair.
. Mendel's laws of heredity, unknown to the early XX century. Were re-opened a new generation of geneticists
. It was found that the genes located in the chromosomes, carriers of the genetic material in the nuclei of plant and animal cells. Genes that constitute the molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), carry the genetic code that directs and controls the biochemical processes in the cell. During the first three decades of XX century. Genetics, focused on crossbreeding of plants (eg, hybrids of maize and wheat) and the study of normal or abnormal state of chromosomes.
In 1926, Mr.. Herman D. Muller showed that X-rays cause mutations in the genetic material of the fruit fly, which are expressed in anomalies and changes in physical properties. In the 25 years before the English physician and biochemist Archibald Garrod discovered that an enzyme deficiency of some of his patients is congenital. Research Garrod raised the question of whether specific genes control the synthesis of specific enzymes, namely the issue has held T. and Beadle, when they began research in 1941
Scientists selected for his experiments Neurospora, t. to. its rapid growth and active reproduction lets you explore in a short time, several generations. Moreover, its propagation could occur in two ways: asexually (by spores formed by a single individual) and infections (combination of two individuals). Genetics of Neurospora has been partially described by other researchers, and T. have studied the features of its power.
At the beginning of their studies of T. and Beadle correctly assumed that, in order 'to be able to discover how genes operate, should some of them to make faulty'. Ever since the work of Muller was aware that, despite the fact that genes are prone to spontaneous mutations, the rate of mutation of genetic material can be increased about 100 times, exposing him to X-ray irradiation. Therefore T. and Beadle Neurospora colonies were grown in culture medium, which contains only the nutrients needed for its growth, and then irradiated with X-rays of the colony. After irradiation, some of the colony bred normally, others - were killed, while others began to grow, but could not reproduce in a minimal culture medium.
It is this third group of colonies of T. Beadle and focused. They transplanted the cells of the colonies in a thousand different culture media, each of which contained a substance which is normal Neurospora can synthesize. At the 199-th environment, to which was added vitamin B6, irradiated organisms grew normally, which allegedly showed the mutation under the influence of radiation of the gene responsible for the synthesis of vitamin B6. To find, . whether, in fact, this genetic defect, . researchers combined strain of mold, . defective in vitamin B6, . with the normal strain and found, . that this was a congenital defect and was determined by a recessive gene, . by Mendel, . that was a proof of control of specific genes for the synthesis of specific cellular substances.,
. Penicillin was discovered in 1928
. Alexander Fleming, is synthesized by the fungus, and laboratory methods developed by T., helped to increase pharmaceutical production of the antibiotic during the Second World War, when he was especially necessary. During 1944. T. as a civilian who served in the American Service Research and Development.
By the end of the war T. was promoted to professor of botany, and in 1946. became a professor of microbiology at Yale University. Here he worked with Joshua Lederberg, a young medical student at Columbia University. Series of experiments, T. and Lederberg demonstrated that bacterial cells are similar to fungi and higher organisms reproduce sexually, a process they called the genetic or sexual recombination. Genetic recombination of bacteria suggests a temporary connection of two separate bacterial cells with the formation of a third, called the subsidiary, which acquires the features of each parent cell.
In 1948, Mr.. T. returned to Stanford professor of biology, and in 1956. was promoted to professor and head of the department of biochemistry. In this capacity, he was one of the initiators of the movement of Stanford's medical school from San Francisco campus in Palo Alto (Calif.). The following year he became a professor at the Rockefeller Institute (now - Rockefeller University) in New York. T. continued study of the genetics of fungi and bacteria, trying, as he said, to secure "a clear understanding at the molecular level, how genes determine the characteristics of living organisms'.
T. shared half the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958. George beadle 'for the discovery of the mechanism of regulation of genes essential chemical processes'. In conclusion, the Nobel lecture T. suggested, . that 'real understanding of the role of heredity and the laws of the world, together with the steady improvement of physical capacity rights and freedom from physical disease and lead to a correct understanding of sociological and economic problems, . to develop an adequate approach to solving them ',
. The second half of the Nobel Prize was awarded to Joshua Lederberg, who later paid tribute to the solution of T. study the effects of mutations induced by X-rays, thereby creating an 'effective new methodology "for studying the mechanism of controlling genes, biochemical processes in living cells. This method, said Joshua Lederberg, 'is now so deeply entrenched in experimental biology ... that, historically, to remind us of his discovery. "
At Rockefeller University, T. devoted its efforts to training young researchers and administrative duties. He was a founding member of the yearbook on genetics and in 1957. member of the Editorial Board of 'Saenz' ( 'Science').
In 1934, Mr.. T. married June Elton, with whom he had two daughters. In 1956, Mr.. They divorced, and after a few months, T. married Viola Kantor, dentist. After her death in 1974. T. the same year he married Elsa Bergland.
Good physical development, T. engaged in swimming and skating, very fond of music, fond of photography. In the last years of his life he has sharply deteriorated health. He died at home in New York at age 65.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, T. Remzi was awarded the prize of the American Chemical Society (1953). He was a member of several professional organizations, t.ch. American Society of Biochemistry, American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Garveevskogo Society, Botanical Society of America and the American Philosophical Society. He was a member of the advisory committees of the National Fund, the American Committee of the National Research Council for Development and the American Cancer Society.