BEGIN (Begin), Menachem( Israeli statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1978)
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Biography BEGIN (Begin), Menachem
August 16, 1913, Mr.. - March 9, 1992
The Israeli statesman, Menachem Begin was born in the Polish city of Brest-Litovsk (now part of the Republic of Belarus). He was the son of the elders of the local Jewish community Wolff Begin and Hashi Kossovskaya. As a child absorbed his father's belief that the Jews are destined to return to the land of their ancestors - in Israel, B. in the age of ten, joined the Zionist youth organization, to prepare for life in Palestine. At age 16 he became a member of a paramilitary formation of the youth 'Betar' associated with the party of the World Zionist Organization. Founded Zionist leader Vladimir Jabotinsky Party called for immediate and decisive action to establish a Jewish state.
In hometown B. graduated from the Jewish school Mizrahi and Polish high school. In 1931, Mr.. he joined the legal department of Warsaw University, after which received a doctorate in law. 'Betar' occupy more space in his life: two years B. was the general secretary of the Czechoslovak Branch. In 1939, Mr.. B. headed the Polish 'Betar'. Then he married Alice Arnold, from this marriage a son and two daughters.
In May 1939, Mr.. B. led mass demonstrations at the British Embassy in Warsaw - in protest against restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine Mandate territory of England. At the same time B. was arrested and spent several months in jail. Released in connection with the approach of Germanic troops to Warsaw, he and his family fled to Lithuania, hoping to get into Palestine. When Lithuania in 1940. was annexed by the Soviet Union, B. was again arrested for political reasons and sent to 8 years in Siberia. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, B. and thousands of other Polish prisoners were released in the hope out of them a new Polish army. Part, in which BA was proved to the British mandated territory of Transjordan (now Jordan), and in May 1942. He came to the land of Palestine. Here B. resumed active in the organization 'Betar', leading her team in Jerusalem. Parents B. and his only brother died in the Nazi hell.
Been discharged from the Polish army, B. became commander of 'Irgun zwei Leumi' (national military organization) - a paramilitary group, carrying out sabotage against the British administration in Palestine.
Under the direction of B. 'Irgun' sought for the Jews - refugees from Europe of free entry into an independent state on Palestinian territory. Until 1947. B. with his wife and children was in hiding, often changed his appearance and used false documents: British authorities have appointed a reward of 30 thousand. dollars for his extradition. Some events of guerrilla warfare greatly complicated the situation B. In 1946, Mr.. Members 'Irgun' bombed the British headquarters of the (hotel 'King David' in Jerusalem), which killed 91 people. Two years later, the group organized an attack on Palestinian village of Deir Yassin, which killed about 200 Arabs. B. argued that in both cases were made warning of the attack, which had been ignored. Nevertheless, activity B. give opponents reason to call him a terrorist.
With the foundation of an independent state of Israel in 1948. paramilitary organization 'Irgun' was transformed into motion 'Herut' ( 'Freedom'), led by its B was. For 30 years, B. was a member of the Knesset (parliament), often come into sharp conflict with the policy of the government party 'mana' ( 'Work'), David Ben-Gurion. In 1977. Party 'Herut' center-right bloc led Likud ( "Unity") to victory in the elections. B. become the sixth prime minister of Israel and led a coalition government.
In the first months in office B. took a hard line in foreign policy. He actively imposing Israeli settlements in the West Bank and resumed its attacks on Palestinian positions in Lebanon. In November 1977. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat made a surprise peace initiative. Despite many years of Arab-Israeli conflict, he announced a willingness to visit Jerusalem. B. welcomed the recent decision of the enemy. 'We met the man - he said later - that just four years ago under the guise of autumn maneuvers caused us calculating blow bpredpolagaya that we are all in the synagogue'.
. Months of negotiations were without much success, but in August 1978
. U.S. President Jimmy Carter invited both leaders to a conference at Camp David (Maryland). Not an easy 30-day conference ended with a signing ceremony of two agreements: 'Foundations of Peace in the Middle East' and 'Foundations of a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. "
. To the surprise of many observers, predicted a failure of the summit, Israel returned to Egypt most of the Sinai Peninsula
. For subsequent negotiations remain several outstanding issues, in particular the problem of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and the issue of occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
. To celebrate joint achievements in the Middle East Peace B
. and Sadat were awarded in 1978. Nobel Peace Prize. Not turning a blind eye to many unresolved issues, the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Aase Liones noted in his speech that 'the first time since the establishment of Israel in 1948. agreement, which provides long-term peace to the area, so long shaded shadow of war '. 'Both winners - she added - played key roles in the reconciliation of former enemies, which is now a source of satisfaction for the true friends of peace throughout the land'.
In his Nobel lecture on December 10 B. spoke about the search for peace in the nuclear age. 'It is not excluded, . that the very possibility of total destruction of our small planet - has been achieved for the first time in human history - once, . God willing, . become a source, . cause and the first impulse to destroy the face of the earth all the instruments of murder and blessed peace, . dreamed about and prayed for past generations, . be the lot of all peoples,
. Despite all the disappointments and tragedies of the past, we must not retreat from this idea of human dreams, unwavering faith '.
In subsequent years, peace hopes began to lose reality. B. said in an interview that he wanted to go down in history as 'a person that approved the borders of Israel forever'. This desire could be the basis of a controversial decision by B. initiate military action in Lebanon, June 6, 1982, Mr.. Their aim was to defeat the local stronghold of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). A week later, a small Israeli troops besieged Beirut and started bombing, which resulted in the evacuation of the PLO from the city. However, Israeli troops are bogged down in Lebanon, lingering there until 1985
After his wife died in 1982. B. distanced himself from the affairs. Severe depression was associated with the circumstances of the Lebanese costly enterprise and a sense of guilt towards his wife, by whom he was unable to be in her last moments. In September 1983, saying his colleagues that his decision to resign. BA, according to the present, said: 'I can not'.
. Approximately the same time is a description B. made correspondent 'New York Times':' A fragile bald man in horn-rimmed glasses with a pale and hollow cheeks after a recent attack ..
. He is very strict with regard to their appearance. In the Israeli parliament, where nobody is surprised at the short sleeves, he never appeared without a jacket and tie '. Throughout his career, NB, who spoke nine languages, was considered a fine and a shrewd politician and fiery speaker.