BEERNAR (Beernaert), Auguste( Belgian statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1909)
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Biography BEERNAR (Beernaert), Auguste
July 26, 1829, Mr.. - October 6, 1912
Belgian statesman Auguste Marie Franц╖ois Beernar was born in Ostend in a wealthy family of Flemish Catholic. Father B. was a clerk in the department of state fees. Shortly after the birth of Auguste his father was translated in Namur, taking his place among the most respected citizens. B. and his sister grew up in a house full of servants.
Since the public schools of Namur not give training required for admission to university, Auguste took lessons from private tutors; significant contribution to his education has also made a mother. Thanks to B. got a craving for knowledge, Teen attracted to work and perseverance. In 1846, Mr.. He entered the university, and five years later received a doctorate in law. Two years B. conducted at universities in France and Germany, where he studied the system of legal education. His conclusions he presented in the report 'Status of studying law at universities in France and Germany', presented by the Belgian Ministry of the Interior in 1853, Mr.. and caused B. some fame.
In 1853, joining the Bar, B. began work in the Brussels Court of Appeal, under the leadership of Hubert Dole, the famous charge d'affaires, who had a decisive influence on the career of the young men. After internship B. took place among the leading lawyers specializing in tax. A large man with an attentive black eyes always attracted attention in the courtroom, where he crushed the opponents brilliant arguments and irrefutable logic.
For 20 years B. prospered as a lawyer until 1873,. Prime Minister Jules Malu, leader of the far-right Catholic party, not invited him to take the post of Minister of Public Works. That proposal drew immediate criticism from the liberals (who believed that such a ministry should be entrusted to an engineer, not a lawyer), and even within the party Malu. Belgian laws provide for appointment of a minister from among the parliamentarians, so B. his candidature in the elections and after an unsuccessful attempt to Soignies was elected from the district Thiele in West Flanders. From that moment until his death in 1912. He remained a member of parliament. As Minister of Public Works B. did much to improve roads and canals in the country. He updated the port facilities in Ostend and Antwerp, B. also sought to end child labor in mines
In the elections of 1878. Catholic party was defeated, but when Malu returned to power in 1884, B. became minister of agriculture, industry and public works. After 4 months of King Leopold II accepted the resignation of Malu, and B. found it necessary to resign his post. But three days later the king offered B. Prime Minister and Minister of Finance and the proposal was accepted with the approval of Malu.
Soon B. proved to be one of the ablest politicians of Belgium. In 1885, Mr.. He has done much to persuade Parliament to recognize the power of Leopold II in the 'Independent State of Congo' autonomous. Merit B. were labor laws, a balanced budget and distribution of suffrage to all citizens over 25 years. Having failed in the House of Deputies with its project of proportional representation, B. in 1894. resigned. In recognition of his merits given the title of honorary Minister of State, and in 1895. colleagues elected him chairman of the Assembly.
Being engaged in public issues, B. increasingly interested in international, especially the problems of the world. In 1896, Mr.. He became an active member of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, founded by William Kramer, and Frederic Passy for opposing arbitration military solution of conflicts. B. presided at the conferences of the Union in 1897, 1905 and 1910. When in 1899. established the Inter-Parliamentary Council, B. became its chairman and presided over the executive committee and the bureau until his death.
The last years of his life B. dedicated efforts to stop the arms race and to persuade people to settle disputes by peaceful means. Absurd, he thought the high cost of weapons with such significant needs in the struggle with poverty in the country. As the most important task he considered the conviction politicians of the need for compulsory arbitration.
At the Hague Peace Conference of 1899. B. chaired the first commission on arms reduction. Appointed member of the International Court of Arbitration at The Hague, he represented Mexico in a dispute with the United States in 1902, developed codes of international maritime law. Striving B. to disarm had brought him into conflict with King Leopold, who was inclined to increase military spending to protect Belgian neutrality. B. did not flinch: 'First among the political virtues and the first condition of success - is perseverance. "
In recognition of its efforts in the struggle for international arbitration and the reduction of armaments B. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1909, which he shared with Paul d'Esturnellem de Kon-pitched. Neither one nor the other winner at the ceremony were not present and the Nobel lectures did not come.
B. was particularly concerned about the development of military aviation at the Inter-Parliamentary Union 1912. in Geneva, he suggested banning aerial combat. First, the proposal met with a cold, but then B. managed to convince the delegates to accept his. The second commission on arms reduction B. reasonable efforts to ensure the humane treatment of prisoners of war. Unfortunately, illness forced him to return to Belgium, but the way he was forced to go to a hospital in Lucerne, where he died of pneumonia on October 6. B. buried in Buafore near Brussels.
In 1870, Mr.. B. married Matilda Wilhelmina Maria Borrell, daughter of the Swiss consul in Brussels. From an early age B. showed remarkable aptitude for drawing, an interest in art he has maintained throughout his life, as president of the Belgian Council of Fine Arts Commission and the Royal Museum.
While some political opponents believed B. utopian, he persistently sought to embody their ideals through legislation. 'In an age when most people living in the past - said Earl Carlton de Villard, Belgian Minister of State, - [Beernar] not only keenly watching the development of attitudes, customs and institutions ... [and] aggressively sought to take part in it '.