Willy BRANDT (Brandt)( In Germany, Chancellor and diplomat, Nobel Peace Prize, 1971)
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Biography Willy BRANDT (Brandt)
genus. December 18, 1913
In Germany, Chancellor Willy Brandt and diplomat (real name Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm) was born in Luebeck, a port city on the Baltic Sea. His mother. March Frahm, was a clerk, the father is unknown. Influenced by his grandfather, an ordinary worker, the boy became a Socialist European democratic persuasion. As a capable teenager, he was given a scholarship in Lц╪beck 'Iohanneume', still in high school, he began to write articles for the socialist newspaper "The People's Journal '(' Volksbote ') under the pseudonym Willy Brandt, who became his constant name. At the age of 16 he joined the Social Democratic Party. In the years when Hitler and National Socialists destroyed the Weimar Republic, B. had several street clashes with the brown -. Considering the Social Democrats are too helpless, B. in 1931. requested the cooperation of more radical parties of the socialist workers. The following year, receiving a certificate in 'Iohanneume', he went to work in a shipbuilding company, and its cooperation with the socialist press continued.
Since coming to power of Hitler in 1933. position B, like many other socialists, began to threaten. Having the party commission to organize the center of exiled socialists, he went to Oslo (Norway) for 2 months before Hitler banned left-wing opposition party and began to prosecute their leaders. In Oslo B. headed the Federation of refugees, from time to time he published his article in the 'Workers' news' (' Arbeiter bladet '), the Norwegian Labor Party newspaper. In addition, B. studied history and philosophy at the University of Oslo, at the same time he took the reformist theory of Scandinavian social democrats.
Travel to Western Europe in the prewar years (a few months he spent in Berlin incognito), B. contribute fully to the organization of the anti-fascist movement. In 1937, Mr.. he witnessed the Spanish Civil War, during which developed a mistrust of the Soviet model of socialism, though it remained on the far left side of the Republicans. Returning to Norway, B. in 1940. has Norwegian citizenship. Shortly thereafter, Germanic troops occupied Norway, and B. as a Norwegian soldier was in the conclusion, but later released and was able to flee to neutral Sweden. Here he studied journalism and has maintained contacts with leaders of the resistance movement.
In 1946, Mr.. as a Norwegian correspondent B. covered the Nuremberg trials course. The following year he became the Norwegian press attache in Berlin. He left his post, resuming relations with the Social Democratic Party of Germany, he was returned to the Germanic nationality. In 1948 ... 1949., He was an assistant mayor of West Berlin, B. collaborated with the British and American authorities (during the Soviet blockade of the city).
After the proclamation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. B. was elected to the Bundestag, the lower house of parliament, where he represented West Berlin until 1957, Mr.. When sitting in the Berlin municipal assembly, B. gradually strengthened his political reputation and in 1957,. elected mayor. But a year later the Soviet Prime Minister Nikita Khrushchev demanded break political ties between West Berlin and West Germany and its transformation into an independent political entity. When B. rejected the ultimatum, East Germany began building the wall to stop access to West Berlin. Hope B. at. that the U.S. would prevent further construction, collapsed when President John F. Kennedy explained in his letter that such measures are not planned. Some historians see this as of incidents for U.S. recognition of the two Germanys, the impetus to the convergence of B. with the East.
In the early postwar years, B. often had to restrain the aspirations of the extreme left that gave the Social Democrats a wider social base. In 1959, Mr.. Party leaders meeting in Bad Godesberg, decided to break with traditional Marxist ideology. B., who played a leading role at this conference was a supporter of the support of private property, market economy and religious tolerance.
By 1961, Mr.. B. reached a critical situation in the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). Although he was unable to become chancellor in the general election but was appointed deputy chairman of the party in 1962 and two years later - Chairman.
In the early 60-ies. Christian Democratic Union has held power, but the Social Democrats led by B. gradually strengthened its position. With the formation of a coalition government of Chancellor Kurt Kiesinger (CDU) B. in 1966. became Vice-Chancellor and Minister of Foreign Affairs. Headed the Foreign Ministry, he has done to its policy of what he called 'European peace order'. B. considered necessary unity of Western Europe and defended the economic and military cooperation with former enemies Germany. At the same time was the beginning of 'Ostpolitik' - Eastern policies aimed at easing relations with its neighbors to the east of Germany. Under this policy in 1967. West Germany and Romania exchanged ambassadors in the coming year were restored diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia.
. In the general election held on September 28, 1969, the Social Democrats won a majority in the Bundestag, sufficient to form a government with the support of the Free Democratic Party
. October 21, 1969, Mr.. Bundestag elected B. Chancellor of the 251 votes to 235. 'I intend to be the Chancellor not conquered, but the liberation of Germany', - said B. reporters. He added that West Germany, while remaining an ally of America, should be more independent course.
Becoming the fourth chancellor of Germany, B. continued to work toward peaceful coexistence with the countries of the Eastern bloc, while strengthening economic relations with Western Europe. He insisted on entering the UK in the European Economic Community, signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1969. and began negotiations with Poland and the Soviet Union on issues of territorial claims, diplomatic and cultural ties, the armed forces.
In March 1970. B. visited East Germany for talks with the communist leader Willie bottle, which, although they have not been successful, but helped to ease tensions between the two Germanies. A few months later more extensive negotiations B. with the Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin ended with the signing of the Treaty on the Non-Aggression. The Bonn-Moscow Treaty, signed on 12 August 1970. West Germany, East Germany recognized the de facto, both sides refused to use military force in disputes. Bonn-Warsaw Pact, signed during his historic visit to B. in Warsaw in December 1970, normalized the West-Polish relations.
The following year, the result of the efforts of B. was the agreement the four powers that occupied Germany and Berlin after the war (Britain, France, USA and the USSR), which marked the beginning of the free communication between West Berlin and West Germany through the territory of the GDR. The agreement made it possible for residents of West Berlin visiting his relatives in the eastern part of the city.
In recognition of the 'concrete initiatives which led to the easing of tensions "between East and West. B. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1971. In his Nobel lecture B. defended the importance of European unity. 'Ideological contrasts, as before, create the border, he said - and a great step forward will be to overcome differences in ideology for the sake of common interests'.
B. retained the post of Chancellor, when the Social Democrats for the first time won a majority in the Bundestag. However, the campaign promises of BI for the reform of education, taxation, etc., were blocked by the Free Democrats partners in the ruling coalition. Continuing inflation and a series of strikes damaged the reputation of the Government, but the unprecedented visit B. Israel and the entry of Germany in the UN allowed him to regain popularity. The arrest of one of the closest aides B. on spying charges has created a political scandal and forced the chancellor to resign.
In subsequent years, B. returned to the radicalism of his youth. As chairman of the Socialist International (since 1976), an organization unites 49 social democratic parties around the world, he drew the sympathy of the Left for their support of revolutionary movements in the 'Third World'. Many socialist leaders in t.ch. Francois Mitterrand in France, criticized the work of B. Considering that it brings the cost of more pragmatic policy. Other critics argued that the policy of B. to the USSR in the previous years meant appeasement. Despite the current reputation as a man of action and extraordinary courage in Germany B. often criticized for periods of apathy and depression.
In 1987. He resigned his chairmanship of the SPD. TK. one of the appointments made by him had led to protests by the party leaders.
Living in Norway, B. in 1940. married Carla Torkildsen. had a daughter. Later the family split up, and in 1948. B. married Ruth Hansen. Norwegian journalist, who bore him three sons. Peter. Lars and Matthias.
'None of the people, who could escape from its history', said B. As the leader of postwar West Germany, he helped his people to overcome the recent past. As mayor of West Berlin, he successfully pursued a moderate course between the extremes of appeasement and bloodshed. Constructing the foreign policy of Germany, he strengthened ties with the West, has developed the concept of a united Europe and made possible the reconciliation of Germany with former enemies. In 1985, Mr.. B. Einstein was awarded the Peace Prize, established in memory of Albert Einstein's contribution to the cause of peace.