Karl Hjalmar Branting( Swedish journalist and political activist, Nobel Peace Prize, 1921)
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Biography Karl Hjalmar Branting
November 23, 1860, Mr.. - 24 February 1925
Karl Hjalmar Branting, the Swedish journalist and politician, was born in Stockholm, he was the only child of Lars Gabriel Branting Branting and Emerentsii. His father was director of the gymnastics school and a founder of the Swedish system of gymnastics. As a child, Karl attended charter schools Beskov is one of his classmates later became King Gustav V.
When admitted to Uppsala University in 1877, B. intended to devote himself to astronomy, in connection with which a lot of time to math and science. In his university years, he, however, carried away by a liberal political philosophy, once confronted with the social ills - unemployment and poverty. In accordance with the liberal beliefs B. from own funds provided support for the Stockholm Institute for the worker facing financial difficulties.
After graduating from university in 1882, B. became assistant director of the Stockholm Astronomical Society. Two years later he married Anne Yaderin and leaves the company, at the same time he began to write articles for the radical newspaper 'Tiden', which was edited by his fellow countryman Klas Arnoldson. As foreign editor of B. visited France, Switzerland, Germany and Russia, where he talked with the theoreticians of socialism and workers. The result of these discussions was the belief that socialism provides the best solution of all modern problems. In 1885, Mr.. B. replaced Arnoldson in the position of chief editor of the newspaper.
In 80-ies. XIX century. liberal, political and social ideas is becoming increasingly common in Sweden. Over 200 years of power in the state held the inert class of conservative bureaucrats and the landed aristocracy. New 1884. Liberal Party first won the general election, and the nascent trade union movement has argued for the socialist transformation. At the same time writers August Strindberg, Henrik Ibsen and Bjornson were mock Bjц╦rnstjerne outdated social and political views prevalent in Scandinavia for so long.
When in 1886. newspaper 'Tiden' faced with serious difficulties, the leaders of the Swedish Socialist Party suggested that B. to organize and edit a newspaper, 'Social democracy. For 31 years, given away daily, B. turned it into one of the most important information and political publications of the socialist direction. The experience gained in covering the sessions of the Swedish Parliament, gave B. understanding of political processes.
As an active member of the Socialist Party B. preparing speeches, organized debates, creating job clubs, unions, supported the strikers. He stood at the origins of the Social Democratic Labor Party in 1889. and was elected its chairman in 1889, this position was maintained for B. until his death. Under the direction of B. Party quickly took an important place in Sweden. In 1896, Mr.. B. became the first Social Democrat, elected to Parliament in 1902. joined by three other comrades in the party, later their number grew steadily.
Over 29 years in Parliament B. achieved universal suffrage, raising the living standards of citizens, gaining the sympathy of the working class and not pushed at this realistically minded petty bourgeoisie. As one of the first anti-militarist, he opposed an outflow of funds for weapons of social. 'If in the hour of danger, - he said - we have to rely on the soldiers ... that bitterly reflect that they must defend their native land, where you can only rely on sweatshop labor in youth and old-age home in old age, then our fate will be resolved in three months 'military training with or without'.
. Vividly pacifism B
. manifested itself in the dispute over the separatist aspirations of Norway. While many Swedes were willing to resort to arms to prevent the secession of Norway, B., as Arnoldson, called to resolve the issue through arbitration. When in 1905. Norway proclaimed its independence, the influence of B. and Arnoldson ensure the peaceful separation of the States.
During World War II B. and Arnoldson advocated respect for the neutrality of Sweden against those who would wish its entry into the war on the side of the Central Powers led by Germany. Adhering to the policy of neutrality, B. nevertheless sympathized with the Allied states united around the UK, France, the United States, because of their commitment to the liberal political system. Well-known defender of international peace based on justice, B. chaired the preparatory meetings of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, attended as the representative of Sweden. He was one of the first supporters of the League of Nations and head of the Swedish movement for joining this organization.
In 1917, Mr.. B. contributed to the creation of a coalition government of Liberals and Social Democrats, in which he was appointed Minister of Finance. This government has managed to carry out constitutional reforms and to give voting rights of all men. In March 1920,. Liberals did not support the social-democratic project tax laws and guarantees to the unemployed, bringing the government resigned. B. created its own government and became the first Swedish prime minister from among the socialists. In October, elections were held, at which B. hoped to gain advantage over the Liberals. Having failed, he resigned as prime minister, but retained a seat in parliament.
At the same time B. continued to work at the League of Nations, representing Sweden at the 1 st Assembly in 1920,. As the leader of the faction of disarmament, he opposed the idea of Implementation of the League with the help of military force. Arbitration, thought BS, gives the best solution to international conflicts.
Part of the efforts in peacefully resolving the dispute with Norway, Sweden, but mainly for his work in the League of Nations B. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1921, which he shared with Christian Lange. In the Nobel lecture in Oslo, B. suggested, . that the years of World War II marked the 'birth in the throes of a new Europe', . For hopeless darkness of war and gave birth to the benefit of: 'the first steps of the League of Nations, . in which disputes between neighbors are solved by legal means, . rather than military superiority of the fittest ',
. B. used the occasion to express' claim that we are small, so-called neutral countries, should bring to Geneva, the requirement that the League of Nations to be comprehensive for this task. "
Then B. said: 'If we do everything possible for peace, that is our first duty to the League of Nations, the impact on world politics, inaccessible to us, the small nations, in a division, will become real. "
In 1921, Mr.. B. again headed the socialist government of Sweden, at the same time taking the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs. In this government, which remained in power for two years, women gained the right to vote. In 1923, Mr.. B. entered the League of Nations Council and participated in resolving the dispute between Italy and Greece over the Dodecanese islands, which later gave way to Italy, Greece. The following year, B. become a member of the Committee on Disarmament and promoted the adoption of the Geneva Protocol, which initiated the system of international security based on the arbitration. He also was a mediator between Britain and Turkey in the dispute on the deployment of British troops in Istanbul (1924). Intermediary to complete the withdrawal of troops and the recognition of independence of the Turkish Republic from the UK.
The third time B. became the Swedish Prime Minister in 1924. In January 1925. illness forced him to resign, shortly after he died in Stockholm.