BUISSON (Buisson), Ferdinand( French educator and champion of the world's Nobel Peace Prize, 1927)
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Biography BUISSON (Buisson), Ferdinand
December 20, 1841, Mr.. - 16 February 1932
French educator and fighter for peace, Ferdinand Edouard Buisson was born in Paris in a Protestant family of Judge Saint-Pierre Buisson Etennskogo Tribunal and Adele Aurelie (nee d'Ebokur) Buisson. B. in college and high school Arzhentan Saint-Etienne, but after his father's death in 1857. was forced to take a coach to support his younger brothers and mother. Later he continued his education at the Lycц╘e Condorcet, and then studied philosophy at the University of Paris (Sorbonne), where he received the degree. Although B. successfully passed the state exam for teachers, he refused to swear allegiance to the Emperor Napoleon III, whom he regarded as a dictator, and was denied the opportunity to work on specialty. After moving to Switzerland, he taught philosophy at Neuchц╒tel Academy from 1866 to 1870
In 1867, Mr.. B. participated in the first Congress of peace and freedom in Geneva and in conjunction with Frederic Passy, and Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian patriot, has created the League of Peace and Freedom. During the Swiss exile B. wrote several articles about the world and education. He also returned to his earlier work written by 'liberal Christianity' (1865), which proposed to replace organized religion code of personal morality. These works reflect two ideas, characteristic of the radical humanism B.: path to peace lies through a change in human relations education, church and state should be formally separated.
. After the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War and the abdication of Napoleon III B
. back in 1870. Paris. One of his first concerns was the organization of orphanage. In the same year, the new Minister of Education appointed B. inspector of primary education in Paris. However, the requirement B. put an end to the domination of the Catholic Church in French schools has caused a storm of indignation in the National Assembly, and he was forced to resign. Within 10 years the number of supporters has grown so much that in 1879. He was appointed director of the department of primary education; this post he retained for 17 years. B. contributed to the adoption of national laws on free compulsory primary education in a single nationwide. B. created 4-volume 'Dictionary of pedagogy and elementary education' (1878 ... 1887), in addition, he published a pedagogical magazine. In 1896, Mr.. B. left the government post and became a professor of pedagogy at the Sorbonne.
Note B. the policy has attracted the famous Dreyfus case, which agitated the whole country in 1894, when Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew by origin, was accused of treason on the basis of lzhesvideytelstva. Angered by a wave of anti-Semitism and the desire of senior officers of the blame on Dreyfus's guilt for another's crime, B. in 1898. became the founder of the League of Human Rights. The purpose of the League was not only the protection of Dreyfus, but also to expose injustice in any form. In 1902, Mr.. B. elected to the Chamber of Deputies from the party of radical socialists, where he remained until 1914. and returned there in 1919 ... 1924.
Since the beginning of the First World War, convinced that victory is the victory of militarism in Germany and the defeat of humanistic ideals, B. announced support for the military efforts of France. In 1916, Mr.. He endorsed the proposal of the Woodrow Wilson of the League of Nations. Disillusioned with the terms of the Versailles Treaty in 1919, that perpetuates hostility between victor and vanquished, B. continued to defend the League as the most effective instrument for maintaining peace. At the same time, he lost his conviction that the key to lasting peace is hidden in Education. When, after the delay of reparation payments, French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr valley - the industrial heart of Germany, B. made great efforts to restore understanding between the French and Germanic peoples. He invited the German peace activists to speak in Paris, and he made a trip to Germany. Although his work nationalists in both countries was met with hostility, . French and Belgian troops leave the Ruhr, . Germanic and business commitments have been revised in accordance with the Dawes Plan (named after American statesman Charles Dawes).,
. shared the Nobel Peace Prize 1927. with Ludwig Quidde, then Chairman of Germanskogo society world. In presenting the awards to representatives of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Fredrik Stang said: 'Governments and their policies are not the only threat to peace. The constant and real threat of war lies also in the minds, the psychology of the masses. Hence, . purposeful struggle for peace must be preceded by education of people, . opinion should avert the war as the argument in the dispute, . replacing it with a higher ideal of peaceful cooperation of nations, . International Court of Justice to resolve disagreements,
. It was in this respect awarded played such a significant role '.
B. attended the ceremony and, although not his Nobel lecture presented in the next year the Nobel committee gave an essay entitled 'Changes in the concept of war and peace'. Noting that the war has ceased to be the work of professionals, he warned that the submarines, aircraft and chemical weapons pose a threat to all living. B. also expressed the hope that the proposal of the French foreign minister Aristide Briand and U.S. Secretary of State Frank Kellogg would lead the international community to renounce war as an instrument of national policy. Returning to the theme of 'peace through education', B. called desirable, while diplomats sought negotiations between governments, educators sought to "influence is not the leaders, but on the people themselves'.
Many years of service to the cause of education has strengthened the belief B. that education should be a means of changing people's attitudes to war and peace. Shortly after awarding the Nobel Prize, he began to develop international contacts between the professional associations of teachers.
The money received from the Nobel Committee, B. conveyed pacifist organizations. In 1924, Mr.. He was awarded the officer's degree of French Legion of Honor. A widower with two sons and daughter, he died of a heart attack at age 90 in g. Telua Saint-Antoine, north of Paris