Henderson (Henderson), Arthur( English statesman and political activist, Nobel Peace Prize, 1934)
Comments for Henderson (Henderson), Arthur
Biography Henderson (Henderson), Arthur
September 13, 1863, Mr.. - October 20, 1935
Arthur Henderson, British statesman and politician, was born in Glasgow (Scotland), he was the youngest son of a spinner David Henderson. He spent his childhood in extreme poverty, and after his father's death in 1872, Mr.. he had to leave school and start work. His mother married again, and the family moved to Newcastle in the north-east coast of England. Here T. continued his studies, but in the age of 12 became a pupil of smelters.
G. was 16 years old when he joined the Methodist Church, through the influence which the sense of duty has become a central feature of his character, and directed his public activity. As a secular preacher G. achieved considerable success in oratory, in which he practiced during the discussions on political topics with his friends at work, in addition, G. a member Taynsaydskogo debating. At age 18 he became an apprentice and joined the Union zhelezoliteyschikov. Even then, he has achieved a certain notoriety as a trade union speaker.
In 1888. G. married Eleanor Watson, parishioner of same church. In the family of a daughter and three sons, the eldest of them was killed during the First World War.
Some time Mr.. was unrelieved secretary of trade union offices in Newcastle and in 1892. was elected a delegate from the three northern counties. In the same year he became a city councilor, and four years later moved to the industrial city of Darlington (30 miles south of Newcastle), which won election to the Board of County Durham. By 1899, when the historic conference of socialists and trade unionists in London, who participated in the work of Mr.. gained nationwide fame. A year later he was among the founders of the Committee of labor representation (TNC), which formed the basis of the Labor Party. In 1903, Mr.. G. became secretary of the PAF and the first mayor-Labor in Darlington, and in addition, was elected to Parliament from the district of Barnard Castle.
Until the beginning of XX. fledgling labor movement Britain exercised their political influence mainly through the Liberal Party (in his youth Mr.. was an ardent admirer of the leader of the Liberals, William Ewart Gladstone). However, the union gradually disintegrated, when the Labor Party from the traditional requirements of 8-hour day went to socialist appeals of the nationalization of industry and land.
In the career of Mr.. impact of this policy turns. In 1906, Mr.. He shall preside at the 1 st Conference of the Labor Party, in the same year he won the general election in parliament - along with 28 Labor MPs, 23 of them represented by the trade union movement. Long before the First World War, Mr.. managed to combine them in a disciplined and cohesive team. He was the leader of the party in parliament from 1908 to 1911, when he became party secretary, the post he left only a year before his death.
Despite the fact that many socialists held pacifist views, Mr.. in 1914. openly supported the entry of Britain into the war. When the Labor leader, Ramsay MacDonald left the House of Commons in protest against the military policy of the Government, Mr.. took its functions assumed. A year later, Mr.. entered a coalition government of Herbert Asquith as Chairman of the Board of Education. A year later he became the first among the Labor Party cabinet minister, was appointed to the post of Treasurer General. As minister without portfolio Mr.. also included in the 'cabinet of five' David Lloyd George. At the invitation of Prime Minister Lloyd George in 1917, he. traveled to Russia to persuade the revolutionary government of Alexander Kerensky to continue the war. From the same motives, Mr.. made with the idea of participation of the British delegation in the International Socialist Congress in Stockholm. But he was not invited to the meeting of the Cabinet, which discussed his proposal, and, when Lloyd George turned to him with reproaches, Mr.. resigned.
After this incident, Mr.. sent all the forces in the transformation of the Labor Party into a monolithic political force with national objectives. With the assistance of party theoreticians in t.ch. Fabian socialists Sidney Webb, D. developed a post-war foreign policy strategy of the Party. In the 'Memorandum for the War Labor Party demanded the establishment of an international organization that would supervise the peaceful solution of disputes. In an effort to broaden the basis of a socialist party, Mr.. and Webb made a new party statute, which was adopted in February 1918. Supporting the 'common ownership of means of production', . This document is not only a united socialist and trade union elements of the Party, . but it opened the access for women and representatives of the petty bourgeoisie: the statute stated, . that a Party member could be the, . who work,
. Under the leadership of Mr.. the party gained its program of peacetime, the platform and clear organization, which brought her immediate success.
G. gradually convince the rank and file party members support the League of Nations, which decided to establish at the Paris Peace Conference. In 1919, Mr.. G. served as chairman of the party on the national industrial conference, and in 1923. chaired the International Labor-Socialist Conference in Hamburg. In 1919 ... 1923. He was elected to parliament. In February 1924, when the Labor Party won a majority in the elections, Mr.. became Minister of the Interior in the first Labor Government in Britain.
Although his department was responsible primarily for the situation inside the country, Mr.. anxiously watched the events on the world stage. Still under the impression from the last war, GA, writes his biographer, 'the war saw the greatest threat to humanity and against it'. In 1924, Mr.. He strongly supported the negotiations begun by Charles G. Dawes of the Reparations. At the Assembly of the League of Nations,. participated in the development of the Geneva Protocol, which provides for the resolution of disputes through arbitration. However, with the defeat of Labor in elections in December 1924. He left government and returned to his task to strengthen the effectiveness of the Party as an opposition force.
When Labor returned to power in 1929, Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald suggested that Mr.. Minister of Foreign Affairs. Although some aspects of foreign policy the Prime Minister personally involved, the main burden of the international lay on the shoulders of Mr.. His task T. seen primarily in creating a system of collective security in Europe.
At a conference on reparations, which was held in The Hague in 1929, he advocated reconciliation with Germany. His perseverance and tact in negotiations with Aristide Briand and Gustav Stresemann helped to achieve the withdrawal of Allied troops from the Rhineland and reduce Germanic war reparations. 'Mr. Arthur Henderson, insisting on a speedy withdrawal of foreign garrisons, - wrote D. Gavin, editor of the newspaper 'The Observer', - has made a major peace breakthrough since the truce. "
At the 10 th Assembly of the League of Nations, held in Geneva in 1929, Mr.. played a leading role in discussions. He also signed an additional article to the Treaty on the League of Nations, providing for binding arbitration in international disputes, Britain was joined by more than 40 States. A year later, Britain and its dominions signed the universal instrument of arbitration. Also in 1930,. G. spoke in support of disarmament, telling a meeting of the Assembly: 'We can never fulfill the tasks of the League, while a step to international agreement will not become universal disarmament'.
Disarmament has G. and in subsequent years. At the invitation of the Council of the League in May 1931. He became chairman of the World Disarmament Conference, which began its work early next year. The conference, which was attended by 60 nations, gathered in troubled times. As a result of severe financial crisis, the Labor government fell, the world's continued economic depression, Japan invaded Manchuria, the draft of the customs union of Germany and Austria, has revived the former Franco-Germanic distrust. Despite worsening health and a complete apathy of fellow of the British delegation, is now a new coalition government, Mr.. achieved his goals with incredible tenacity. However, he did not find support leaders of great powers, which are now suspicious of the very idea of disarmament. When Adolf Hitler was in January 1933. Chancellor, Germanic delegation left the conference. By 1934, Mr.. even G. it became clear that the abundance of outstanding issues makes it impossible for any agreement at the conference.
For persistent defense of international disarmament G. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1934
In his speech, the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee said Ludwig Movinkel of tact and kindness G., his moderation, which is combined with the ability to act decisively. Noted with regret that 'the country, organized a conference on disarmament, are responsible for a new arms race', T. in his Nobel lecture expressed an optimistic view of future. 'Our ultimate ideal - said G., - creation of the world community'.
However, only a year later Italy invaded Ethiopia, and Germany began rearming. Health D. deteriorated, and on 20 October 1935. recovering from surgery, he died.
Speaking about the contribution of Mr.. the cause of peace, his biographer, Mary Agnes Hamilton said: 'For it does not apply the word' failure '. His many years of work, does not involve personal ambitions, made possible the belief that temporary setbacks - no more than a coincidence ... His sense of duty never left the man '.