Goba (Gobat), Albert( Swiss politician and Nobel Peace Prize, 1902)
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Biography Goba (Gobat), Albert
March 21, 1843, Mr.. - March 16, 1914
Swiss politician Charles Albert Goba was born in Tramelane (North-Western Switzerland), where his father was a Protestant clergyman. After secondary education, he studied philosophy, history and literature at the universities of Basel, Bern and Heidelberg. Received in 1867, Mr.. doctorate in law at Heidelberg, D. while engaged in the economy and international law at the Sorbonne and College de France in Paris.
In 1868, Mr.. Back in Switzerland, Mr.. lectured at the University of Bern, and then moved to the nearby town of DelцLmont and opened a law practice. Large, powerfully built man, G., according to the memoirs of contemporaries, 'attacked the opponent's mistakes, like storming the fort'. G. successively occupied several public positions, and in 1882, Mr.. was elected to the Grand Council Verne - the legislature of the canton.
In the same year, Mr.. was appointed trustee of Berne Department of Education, while in this position for 24 years, he conducted a series of progressive reforms. G. introduced in the curricula of vocational training, has made the allocation of public funds for the course of art history and deepened the program on science and modern languages at the expense of the classical. He persuaded the administration of the University of Bern to open courses for adults and helped raise funds for the general education program.
Peru T. also belong to labor 'republic of Berne, and France in the wars of religion' ( "Republique de Berne et la France pendant les guerres de religion", 1891) and the popular book 'People's History of Switzerland' ( "Histoire de la Suisse racontee au peuple", 1900) .
. At the same time, Mr.
. remains active in local and national politics in 1884. He won election to the Federal Council of Switzerland, and two years later became president of the Canton of Berne. In 1890, Mr.. G. included in the National Council, the place in which he retained for life.
Interest in international law and politics drew Mr.. to the peace movement, which at the end of XIX century. was gaining ground in Europe. In 1889, Mr.. G. attended the first conference of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, founded the year before, Passy and William Kramer. The purpose of the Union was to enhance the parliamentarians of Europe, bringing together the issues through debate and disagreement. Especially close to T. Union was the promotion of ideas of international arbitration: he believed that arbitration agreements are a prerequisite for peaceful coexistence.
. As head of the Swiss delegation at the Third Conference of the Interparliamentary Union in Rome (1891) G
. showed such energy, that he proposed to organize a meeting of the Union in Bern. It r. was elected Director of the Inter-Parliamentary Bureau administrative body that coordinated the activities of the Union in various countries, has been accepting new members and convene an annual conference. In addition, in 1893 ... 1897. G. edited a monthly publication of the Union 'Inter-Parliamentary Conference' ( "La Conference Interparlementaire") and wrote a brief history of the organization.
Transferring his internationalist views in the political sphere, D. in 1902. held in Switzerland, a bill that provides for arbitration of trade agreements. Legislators agreed to include in all contracts of Switzerland article on the transfer of intractable disputes in the International Court of Arbitration in The Hague.
For his efforts in international arbitration G. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1902, which he shared with Eli Dyukommenom. The text of the welcoming speech was not preserved, however, referring to Mr.. at an official banquet, the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Jorgen Levlann noted that under the leadership of the winner of the Inter-Parliamentary Union 'has become a major factor in international politics'. He paid tribute to Mr.. for 'always practical style of leadership'.
In his Nobel lecture, presented four years later, Mr.. described the results achieved in the Hague. 'Completely true that I do not belong to those who laugh Utopias. Today's Utopia could become a reality tomorrow ... Still, I hope that I am able to separate the goals that are easy to reach from those to whom we are not ready, - said Mr.. - But one thing is certain: thanks to an impressive inventions and discoveries of our century man finally awoke from its long sleep to the social order - a solidarity of nations ... Let the Hague Conference will be her instrument! "
Two years after receiving the Nobel Prize G. headed the Swiss delegation to the IPU Conference in St. Louis (Missouri, USA). Here he was requested to submit a petition to Theodore Roosevelt, the facilitation of 2-nd peace conference in The Hague, which took place in 1907
After the death of Ducommun in 1906. G. succeeded him as director of the International Peace Bureau, the center of the dissemination of information about the peace movement. Thus, in 1906 ... 1909. G. headed the two largest peace organizations. When the headquarters of the Inter-Parliamentary Union in 1909. moved to Brussels, Mr.. left a senior post in the Bureau and out of the government of the canton of Berne (1911), but continued to work for peace: I saw the light of his book 'European nightmare' ( "Le Cauchemar de l'Europe"), which emphasized the danger of an arms race. The last time Mr.. chaired the Inter-Parliamentary Union in 1912
A year later he organized a meeting of French and Germanic parliament, where the question of limiting the arms race, but the results of this meeting did not produce. Beginning of World War II, Mr.. saw: the meeting of the International Peace Bureau in Bern on 16 March 1914, Mr.. He died of a stroke. At the funeral of Mr.. Belgian statesman Henri La Fontaine spoke about the temperament of a fighter who seemed to have foretold the fate of a quiet warrior for peace. 'And if he became one of the most zealous defenders of the world, it is because that victory in this case did not seem to go', - finished Lafontaine.