Ducommun (Ducommun), Eli( Swiss journalist, teacher Nobel Peace Prize, 1902)
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Biography Ducommun (Ducommun), Eli
February 19, 1833, Mr.. - December 6, 1906
Swiss journalist, teacher and fighter for peace, Elie Ducommun was born in Geneva (Switzerland), of the three sons Octavia Matti and Jean Ducommun, a watchmaker from Neuchц?tel, he was the youngest. Although parents could not give him a higher education, the successes of the boy were so severe that at the end of the school in 17 years he lived in a prosperous Saxon family as a private tutor. After spending three years here, D. perfectly studied German language and on his return to Geneva, he began teaching it in public schools.
Two years later, D. became editor of political magazine 'The Geneva Review' ( "Revue de Geneve"), his work helped him to take prominence in local politics: in 1857. He was appointed vice-chancellor of the canton of Geneva, and after five years of the Chancellor.
Returning to journalism in 1865, D. starts editing the paper 'Progress' ( "Progres") in Delemont. Around the same time he became interested in the peace movement, which originated in Western Europe, whereas. Interest D. increasingly deepened, and after a while he became one of the editors 'United States of Europe' ( 'Les Etats-Unis d'Europe'), where he was responsible for the French section. Magazine published in Paris the International League for Peace and Freedom, a pacifist organization founded in the year before. D. engage in discussions organized by the various working groups and liberal society of Berne. In the course of these discussions formed the idea of a credit institution for the needs of Swiss workers, which was implemented by the D. in 1869, when he founded the Swiss National Bank. By 1907, Mr.. the number of shareholders of the bank grew from 93 people to 40 thousand
In 1871, after a year of military service in the post of Secretary General at the Hans Herzog, D. together with his colleague Augustus Schneegans founded the newspaper "L'Helvetia", was leaving in large numbers and quickly gained popularity. Support for the Swiss federal constitution, however, cost the newspaper its French-speaking subscribers, and in 1872. it ceased to exist.
The following year, D. headed the construction of the railway Jura - Bern (Late Jurassic - Simplon), aided by his journalistic reputation. Having moved to Biel and watching the construction site, he has lost touch with pacifists. When completed in 1887, Mr.. D. returned to Bern. Administrative duties on the railway he combined with the work of the Grand Council of Geneva for nine years and the Grand Council of Bern - for ten.
. In 1891, taking part in the 4 th Conference of the Interparliamentary Union in Rome, together with Albert Goba D
. founded the International Peace Bureau to coordinate the various pacifist societies of Europe. D. Acting Secretary of the new organization without receiving any remuneration. Livelihoods are still brought him work on the railroad.
Devoting evenings, weekends and holidays his work in the Bureau, Dr.. carried on an extensive correspondence, preparing the annual conference, wrote and distributed applications and brochures, gathering an impressive library of documents on peace and disarmament. He was also head of the Swiss delegation to the Bureau.
In recognition of the merits of the D. and Goba were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1902. Although the text of the welcoming speech was not preserved, the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Jorgen Levlanna on the occasion of his Nobel lecture D. (1904) is known. Paying tribute to the people of Switzerland, who 'has a special gift of translating ideas belonging to the realm of fantasy', Levlann welcomed D. 'as the head of a collaborative effort of all peace-loving societies of the world'.
In his Nobel lecture D. turned to the 'annals', calling it a long roster of violence. 'I leave the share of military challenge to try to explain how these wars were the formation of character, or the cause of civilization towards the kingdom of justice on earth' - he said. Alternatively D. suggested measures such as arbitration, the strengthening of international law, so that nations could resolve their disputes without resorting to arms.
All money received from the Nobel Committee, Dr.. passed pacifist movement. When in 1903. Swiss government acquired the railway Jura - Simplon, D. left his post: now there is nothing to distract him from pacifism.
In 1857, Mr.. D. married his cousin, Adel Ducommun. A man of broad interests, he valued literature and theater, founded by two cultural society for the French-speaking population of Switzerland. His book of poems 'The last smile' ( "Derniers Sourires") was published in 1886. Died D. Bern on Dec. 6, 1906, Mr.. The hallmarks of life AD, wrote Frederic Passy, one of his companions on the movement of the peace forces were 'hard work, diligence, integrity and dedication to their tasks. "