KASSEM (Cassin), Rene( French jurist Nobel Peace Prize, 1968)
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Biography KASSEM (Cassin), Rene
October 5, 1887, Mr.. - 20 February 1976
Samuel French jurist Renц╘ Cassin was born in Bayonne, he was one of two children in the family of merchant Henri Cassin (a Jew by birth) and Gabriella Deborah Dreyfus. K. studied at the Lyceum (NICE) and the University (Eck-en-Provence), where he received a degree in humanities, and then by legal science in 1908. He completed education in the University of Paris, where he studied law, economics and political sciences, and in 1914. received a doctorate. After a brief law practice in Paris to. the beginning of World War I was drafted into the army and became an infantry officer. In 1916, Mr.. He was seriously wounded in the stomach, but due to the fact that his mother, who served in the hospital, insisted on an immediate operation, K. survived. However, intestinal pain tormented him all his life. At the end of the war to. taught international law at Lille, and then in Paris. Later, he represented France at the League of Nations and several Geneva Disarmament Conference in 1924 ... 1938.
Own front experience made him think about the plight of the disabled, widows and orphans. K. founded and headed the Federal Union of Associations of disabled and elderly veterans of the war, he also became vice-president of the National Council for the Care. In 1921, Mr.. K. organized a conference of veterans of the war in Italy, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Austria. Through the International Labor Organization, he unsuccessfully tried to join the veterans of different countries in support of the Conference 1932. Disarmament.
In June 1940. invaded by the Germans in France. Among the prominent citizens to. one of the first joined the Government of 'Free French' in-exile, which was established in London by General Charles de Gaulle. K. was appointed Secretary of Defense and was responsible for military operations. Later he was appointed Commissioner of Justice and Public Education.
After the liberation of France in 1944. K. became vice-president of the State Council and member of the Constitutional Council, which considered the French laws for compliance with the constitution. In 1945, Mr.. K. headed the Board of the National School of Administration.
To. was also elected a delegate to the Commission of Human Rights, the establishment of which was provided by the UN Charter in the light of atrocities during World War II. The commission was headed by Eleanor Roosevelt, as vice-chairman - K. The Commission's task was the preparation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to which any country could join. E. Roosevelt often said that the text of the declaration was drawn up precisely K.
Preparation of a declaration was not easy, t. to. document was supposed to take account of different religious traditions, political views, laws and economic systems of countries - members of the UN. The first meeting of the commission was held in January, 1947. In the next year's draft to. was submitted to the General Assembly. After two months, 97 meetings and 1,200 votes on the proposed amendments, the Declaration was adopted on 10 December 1948. Since 1950, Mr.. This day is celebrated as Human Rights Day.
While not a law, a declaration, consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, was to establish 'a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations'. Among its declared principles - the right to life and personal security, equality before the law, freedom of conscience, religion, speech and assembly, right to work, equal compensation for equal work, to rest, the right to education. Since 1948. Many States have incorporated the relevant articles in their constitutions.
In 1966, Mr.. Declaration was clothed in the form of a treaty and accepted by the UN General Assembly. While K. was chairman of the Commission of Human Rights. He proposed two new articles - on civil and political rights and rights in the field of economy and culture, which increased the value of document. However, it was clear that many states do not intend to be bound by the obligations in this regard.
Human rights and the world remained a major concern to. and in subsequent years. He was among the founders of the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), whose charter was approved in 1945 and from that date to 1952, Mr.. K. remained a French delegate to UNESCO. It often happened that K. sharply criticized the policies of UNESCO, if it is not pursuing humanitarian and political objectives. In 1950 ... 1960. K. was a member of the International Court in The Hague, and in 1965 ... 1968. - Chairman of the European Court of Human Rights.
To celebrate the 20 th anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights to. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1968. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Aase Liones on this occasion said: 'The charter of the UN on several occasions stressed the determination to defend human rights. But the definition of these rights in the Charter does. The challenge therefore was to set the rights for the people of 50 or 60 countries around the world, with their different levels of cultural development, different religions, traditions, ideologies'. Liones noted full range of difficulties faced by K. and his commission at work on the Declaration.
In reply to. described the Declaration as a 'new type of document, which organized mankind has created, at a time when man's power over nature through science has grown extraordinarily and had to decide what benefits you can derive from it'. Proviso that 'the jurisdiction of the States remains a fundamental principle', K. added that "now it is not the exclusive '. The value of the declaration to. saw that, 'first, the human being rose ... In legal terms, to the level of the subject of international law, and secondly, the state agreed to exercise their sovereignty to the requirements of international law '.
For many years. headed the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg, . He has collaborated with the American Jewish Committee in organizing a conference in Uppsala (Sweden) in 1972, . which had an impact on section of human rights in the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, . signed in Helsinki in 1975,
. K. also participated in campaigns for the rights of Jews, some time was president of the Jewish alliance in France.
To. married March 29, 1917, Mr.. Simon Izomar, who died in 1969. Being a heart attack in hospital in November 1975, he announced the marriage with Ghislain Bru. K. died in Paris a year. Shortly before his death he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor.