MCBRIDE (McBride), Sean( Irish lawyer and politician, Nobel Peace Prize, 1974)
Comments for MCBRIDE (McBride), Sean
Biography MCBRIDE (McBride), Sean
genus. January 26, 1904
Irish lawyer and political activist Sean MacBride was born in Paris. His father, John McBride, was an Irish nationalist, he opposed the British rule and created the Irish Brigade, fought in South Africa against England during the Boer War. Sean's mother, Maud Guoying, was a famous beauty, which is devoted to a series of poems by William Butler Yeats. She has also held a prominent position in the medium of Irish nationalists.
In 1905, Mr.. McBride Sr. returned to Dublin, leaving his family in Paris. The boy studied at the Jesuit school of St.. Louis, where he learned fluent in French, almost without knowing English. While on vacation in 1914. ten M. and his mother cared for soldiers wounded in the battle of the Marne. Father M., who participated in anti-British uprising in 1916, was captured by the British and executed. M. mother went to Dublin, where she was arrested several times for political activities. Double M. helped her out of prison, twice the British arrested him.
In 1917, Mr.. M. joined the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Despite his youth, he participated as an officer in the war in 1919 ... 1921. against England. At one time he was secretary of the Republican leader Eamon de Valera. In accordance with the peace settlement in Ireland was established Irish Free State, and six counties north, where the predominantly Protestant population, remained part of Great Britain. IRA leadership did not agree with this decision and start a civil war with the Irish Government. Few times M. found himself under arrest, but he managed to escape. Despite the enormous growth characteristic droop and marked French accent, M. well get up and lived in hiding for fourteen years.
In 1926, Mr.. M. married Catalina Ball-ford, Irish Argentine origin, the son of a daughter and son. After a year in Paris, the family returned to Ireland. In 1929, Mr.. M. briefly visited the United States, which tried to organize support for the IRA. In 1936, Mr.. M. became commander of the organization, but a year later left it in protest against a planned terrorist bombing campaign in Britain and Northern Ireland.
While in hiding, M. managed to get a legal education in Dublin and in 1937. started an independent practice. He soon gained a reputation as the best lawyer in Dublin and became a senior adviser for seven years instead of the usual fifteen. At the beginning of the Second World War, the Irish government, led by De Valera, announced Neutrality. When the IRA refused to respect the neutrality and announced that they supported Hitler in the fight against England, the Irish government has made numerous arrests without formality. Despite the fact that M. broke with the IRA, he undertook to protect the few terrorists have been sentenced to death, and has made overturning a verdict in the Supreme Court.
After the Second World War, M. founded the Republican Party, campaigned for economic reforms, similar to New Deal in the U.S.. Was anticipated weakening of political ties with Britain and the proclamation of the Republic of Ireland. In the elections of 1948. Party M., demonstrating a considerable force, was able to defeat the ruling party 'Fianna Fц║il'. The coalition government, headed by opposition leader John Castello, M. was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. In this capacity, M. signed an agreement with the United States, which has made Ireland a party to the European Recovery Program. The following year he represented Ireland at the meeting of 19 states that have adopted 'Marshall Plan'.
M. use its authority for adoption April 18, 1949, Mr.. Law of the Republic, in accordance with which Ireland withdrew from the British Commonwealth and declared the claim to severoirlanskie county.
M. remained foreign minister until 1951. and re-elected in the Irish Parliament in 1951, 1954 and 1955. The Council of Europe, he played an important role in the adoption of the European Convention on Human Rights, the first international agreement on this issue, signed in November 1950
Since then, M. devotes its energy to the cause of human rights. In 1961. He became chairman of the international board of the organization 'Amnesty International', retaining that post until 1974. Travel to countries accused of political persecution, he strengthened the prestige of the organization as a neutral voice in the protection of victims. In 1968 ... 1970. M. acted as Secretary General of the International Commission of Jurists, in 1952. established in West Berlin to oversee the state of human rights in the GDR and other Eastern European countries. He was a member of the International Peace Bureau and chairman of its executive board from 1968 to 1974
In 1973, Mr.. M. became UN Commissioner for Namibia (South West Africa), held territory of South Africa. Fulfilling duties Commissioner, M. made a decision on Namibia's independence, despite criticism from some colleagues in the UN, protesting against the imposition of sanctions.
Together with Eisaku Sato M. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1974. for the establishment of international mechanisms for monitoring the status of human rights. 'McBride is of the opinion that no nation in the world can claim to sovereignty, which would have flouted international human rights', - said in his speech, the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Aase Liones. She also noted the idea of M. the establishment of the International Court of Human Rights, has broad powers, recalled the work of the recipient in the 'Amnesty International', International Commission of Jurists, the International Peace Bureau.
In reply, M. expressed frustration at the onset of nuclear weapons and government indifference to human life. 'A review of the current situation is clear, - said Moscow - what power is often served in a bad example. If those, . those in authority and power, . resort to torture and murder, . what remains to victims, . but the response deystviyN 'He called for a new world order, . based on disarmament, . and world government, . for a new Geneva Convention, . banning nuclear weapons,
. 'Why explosive bullet is prohibited, and the atomic bomb - netN' - asked M.
Candidacy M. caused problems to the general public. Some find it strange that the choice fell on man, long time associated with the IRA. Others considered illogical rewarding M. separately from the 'Amnesty International', which the Peace Prize was awarded later.
Activity in international relations M. retained and after receiving the prize. Remaining UN Commissioner until 1976, he was unable to break the deadlock situation in southern Africa. In 1977. He chaired the Committee on International Relations of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Soon after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982. M. was appointed chairman of the committee to review possible violations of international law by Israel.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, M. also received the Lenin Peace Prize (1977), American Medal of Justice (1978) and a silver medal by UNESCO (1980).