MARSHALL George( American statesman and military figure of the Nobel Peace Prize, 1953)
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Biography MARSHALL George
December 31, 1880, Mr.. - October 16, 1959
American statesman and military leader George Catlett Marshall was born in Yuniontaune (Pennsylvania). One of the representatives of the family John Marshall, was a member of the Supreme Court. George was the second son and third child of George Catlett Marshall, a prosperous merchant with coal, and Laura Bradford. M. was restrained, serious boy with a strong craving for excellence. Despite the opposition of parents, he chose a military career, in 1897. entered the Virginia Military Institute in 1901. successfully completed its. In the lieutenant M. was assigned to the infantry.
After serving 18 months in the Philippines, M. returned to the United States and ended up at Fort Reno (Oklahoma). One year he spent in the infantry and cavalry school at Fort Livenvorte (Kansas), graduating with distinction in 1907, a year later, M. graduated from the Army Staff College. After the second term in the Philippines, M. was withdrawn in the United States and was assigned to San Francisco and then to Fort Douglas (Utah). In those years, one of the commanders spoke of him thus: 'From my point of view, the army is not found and five people capable of better than he who commanded the division. "
Assigned to the 1 st Infantry Division in World War I, M. participated in the battles near Luneville, in Picardy and Cantina (1917). Turning a year later in the General Staff, with the rank of colonel, he developed the operation 1-Army. In 1919, Mr.. M. preparing a plan anticipated offensive against Germany. It was then that he drew the attention of Gen. John J. Pershing. Warlock - as colleagues called him - was awarded U.S. medal "For Distinguished Service 'and the French Croix de Guerre with palm branches.
In accordance with the peace-time rank of M. was reduced to the captain, and he continued to successfully serve. From 1919 to 1924. M. was adjutant under General Pershing, then spent three years in China, where he learned to speak and write in Chinese. These skills were useful to him later. Upon returning to the U.S. he was appointed assistant commandant of the Army Infantry School at Fort Benninga (Ga.), where he spent nearly five years. On teaching M. gained a reputation as a supporter of advanced infantry tactics and effectiveness of combat. Co-workers respected him for his honesty, kindness and professionalism.
In 1938. M. moved to Washington (DC), where he became Assistant Chief of General Staff of Military Planning. A year later he was appointed Acting Chief of Staff in the rank of general. In September 1939, with the beginning of the Second World War in Europe, M. became the Army Chief of Staff. Convinced that available in the U.S. Army worth only a 'third-rate power', M. took up the upgrading of equipment and strengthening the forces. The weakness of the military training is constantly evoked in his anxiety, and in 1940. He persuaded Congress to pass a law on selective service and to consider the National Guard. During the inspection visits M. convinced that the officers of the need to cultivate self-control, imagination and leadership skills. Washington M. reorganized the War Department to improve control and efficiency of command. As Secretary of State Cordell Hull, M. constantly warned army commanders in the Pacific Ocean about a possible attack by Japan.
Engaging in a continuing effort to strengthen the armed forces, M. not stop to plan the operation of World War II. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt made M. his adviser on strategy and tactics. M. accompanied Roosevelt at conferences in Argentina, Casablanca, Quebec, Cairo, Teheran and Yalta. Considering the task of defeating Germany, the primary, M. with the British led military action in North Africa and Sicily, . arms and food to the Soviet Union, . victoriously finished the war with Italy and the planned completion of the largest in the history of the expedition on the landing of troops in Normandy and the occupation of Germany.,
. During the war, M
. participated in the political committee for the control of the atomic bomb. In 1945, Mr.. he recommended to President Harry C. Truman to use these weapons against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 'The bomb put an end to the war - say M. later. - So we had to use it '. After the Japanese surrender M. resigned from his post as Chief of Staff. Six days later he began his diplomatic career, when at the request of Truman, he went to China, hoping to prevent a civil war and establish a coalition government of nationalists and communists. However the ceasefire proved short-lived, and in January, 1947. M. Truman reported the failure of his mission, recommending to withdraw U.S. troops from China.
A month later, Truman appointed M. Secretary of State and laid on him the gravity of the problem of post-war reconstruction of international relations. By the spring of 1947. President desperate to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union on the future of Europe and the U.S. determination to stop Soviet expansion has resulted in military aid to Greece and Turkey. Concerned about economic instability in Europe and the Communist Party, M. In his speech, 1947. Harvard announced a plan large-scale economic aid to Europe. 'Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine - the state secretary said, - but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos'. In September, 1947. 16 European countries formed the Committee of European cooperation, which has developed a joint program of economic recovery in Europe. For this purpose, the U.S. Congress has allocated 12 billion. U.S.. 'Marshall Plan' is the largest program of economic assistance, it was he who made possible the so-called economic miracle of Germany in the 50's.
Help Europe was not the only problem encountered by the M. during the Cold War. With the deterioration of Soviet-American relations regime in the quadripartite administration of Germany has exhausted itself, the country was divided into two states. In 1948, Mr.. M. countered the Soviet blockade of Berlin Airlift. Similar tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union in Korea forced the State Department to make the matter for the UN. Elections under UN supervision in the southern part of Korea were a step in the formation next year of the Republic of Korea. In an effort to gain new allies, M. strengthened relations with Italy and opened a diplomatic mission in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), in Israel and Korea. He played an important role in the creation of the Organization of American States, began talks on security in Europe, which later led to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). January 20, 1949, Mr.. M. resigned for health reasons.
In 1950, Mr.. exacerbation of hostilities in Korea was the reason that Truman asked M. return to government as Minister of Defense, and in September M. started to reorganize the army system. At his insistence, Congress expanded the application of the law on a selective conscription. Racial discrimination has been prohibited in military training in Korea, parts, consisting of soldiers of one race, were dissolved. When the president relieved General Douglas MacArthur of his duties as commander, M. supported Truman during congressional hearings. At the end of tenure M. was attacked by Joseph McCarthy's 'gentleness towards communism'. Respond M. not consider it necessary.
In September 1951. at age 70, M. resigned as Minister of Defense. Two years later he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953, and became the first professional soldier among the winners. According to the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Carl Joachim Hambro, the prize was awarded to M. not for the military successes, but for a peaceful time, reflected in the 'Marshall Plan'. Responding to the criticism, M. in his speech said: 'Price War I have always before my eyes. This is a vast building, which backs the gravestones. All my heart I would like to find a way to avoid the danger of another war.
M. married in 1902. Elizabeth Carter, a native of Lexington (Virginia). Heart disease does not allow her to have children, in 1927. operation proved fatal for her. Three years later, M. married the widow Katherine Tupper Brown and fathered three children. Allan, a favorite of Moscow, was killed by a German sniper in Italy in the spring of 1944. Retaining his characteristic restraint and dignity, M. After retirement he lived in Leesburge (Virginia), October 16, 1959. He died in Washington and was buried at Arlington Cemetery.
Life M. a vivid illustration of American military tradition. Minister of Defense Henry Stimson believes his 'best soldier', as he had ever known. Truman called M. 'among the greatest living American', man, 'which the United States owe their future'. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill spoke of him as 'the true organizer of victory'. Most reviews of the M. concerns, however, not so much military achievements, but his personal qualities. Colleagues say the complete absence of M. political ambitions, noted his devotion to duty, discipline, sacrifice, virtue. Honesty it was reputed to be perfect. 'Moral - main condition of victory - set forth his principles of M. - Not enough to fight. Solves business spirit in which we go into battle. The heart and soul of the soldier - it's all ... Vera rights makes him unbeatable. "