Passy (Passy), Frederic( French political economist and defender of the world's Nobel Peace Prize, 1901)
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Biography Passy (Passy), Frederic
May 20, 1822, Mr.. - June 12, 1912
French political economist and defender of peace Frц?dц?ric Passy was born in Paris, in a large and flourishing family, some members of which occupy important state positions. In childhood P. memory of the Napoleonic wars were still fresh, and the boy repeatedly heard stories about the battles, which were attended by his relatives. In high schools, and Louis le Grand in Paris, Bourbon P. studied philosophy, law and economics. Under the influence of his uncle Hippolyte, minister under King Louis-Philippe and the Emperor Napoleon III, in P. developed an interest in political economy. Important role in shaping the worldview P. played a free-trade doctrine, contained in the writings of Richard Cobden, John Bright, Gustave de Molinari: these scholars promoted the ideals of rationalism, personal and economic freedom, private property, internatsinalizma.
. Having inherited in 1844, P
. left public service and became absorbed in the study of political economy. During a trip to Italy he became acquainted with Vlansh Sager, and in 1846, Mr.. marry her in the family were born 12 children.
P. had some idea of the peace movement that began in Europe, but not interested in them until the end of the Crimean War (1853 ... 1856), in which France had fought on the side of Britain and Turkey against Russia. Countless victims on both sides terrorized P., and during the floods in the Loire he was surprised that the public, are horrified by the number of victims of the disaster, almost indifferent to the countless victims of war. P. came to the conclusion that natural disasters can not be avoided, while preventing war can and should be. Part-time, still care political economics, he began to devote to peace.
This decision was for P. logical. He believed war was not only immoral, but counter-productive, which implies 'huge financial inconvenience, loss of property and trade, a threat to life and liberty of the individual'. P. believed that if people and nations are aware of 'linking their material and moral solidarity, they condemn the war and try to ensure their natural interests through international agreements and border trade. "
Some of their views P. outlined in the 'problems of the economy' ( "Melanges economiques") - a collection of essays, published in 1857, and in lectures, which he read in a few years. He avoided public service, t. to. he would have to swear allegiance to the Emperor Napoleon III, which rebelled against his conscience. For the same reason it rejected the awarding of the Order of the Legion of Honor and several other appointments.
Increased friction between France and the Germanic states in the 60-ies. XIX century. alarmed P. and other French liberals. When Napoleon III tried to establish control over Luxembourg, the war began to seem inevitable. P. and two of his influential colleagues wrote a letter to the Paris newspaper 'Time' ( "Le Temps"), calling for a peaceful solution to the conflict and the establishment of the French Society of the world. Suddenly broad support letters inspired P. and several of his friends to create in the same year the International League for permanent peace.
Despite all efforts, P., in 1870. between France and Prussia the war began. For France, it proved disastrous: the army had been defeated, Napoleon was taken prisoner and besieged Paris. At the beginning of next year, the Government requested the World. One of the victims of the war became the League, but its basis was established French Society of Friends of Peace. P. published a manifesto 'Revenge or revival', which called for 'a peaceful settlement between France and Germany on the basis of arbitration', there is proposed a neutral status of Alsace and Lorraine.
With the founding of the Third Republic in 1871. P. was finally able to enter the service, and soon began teaching at the School of Paris. In 1881, Mr.. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, where he maintained the freedom of trade, labor laws and resolutions of international arbitration. When France is aggressively expanding its colonial empire in North Africa and South-East Asia, P. strongly condemned attempts to "dominate, enslave, exploit other nations ... who feel their nationality, just as we are, and are not less committed to our independence and native land '.
At this time, P. more and more fond of the movement for arbitration - alternative to international armed conflicts. In 1887, Mr.. William Cremer began to prepare an agreement between Britain and the United States for arbitration in all cases of dispute which can not be the solution of the usual diplomatic means. The warm welcome extended to Creamer in the U.S., and support his ideas in the British Parliament inspired P. a similar initiative. Together with Cremer in 1888. P. organized a meeting of French and British parliamentarians to discuss the prospects of arbitration between their countries and the U.S.. Meeting it was decided to repeat a year. In 1889, Mr.. Representatives of 10 European countries and the United States met in Paris during the World Expo and founded the Inter-Parliamentary Union to develop proposals for arbitration and disarmament. After being defeated in re-election bid, P. began to devote most of his time as President of the Union, but many continued to write and lecture.
Over many years of peacemaking efforts P. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1901, this honor he shared with Henri Dunant. Presentation of the winners did not take place, and the Nobel lectures were not represented.
A recognized leader in the European peace movement, P. continued to work after the award. He appealed to Queen Victoria with a call not to go to war with the Boers in South Africa, has urged Russia and Japan to resolve the territorial dispute by arbitration, which was done in 1906. by Theodore Roosevelt. Until the end of life P. was convinced that 'the future belongs not to the war, alienation and hatred. It belongs to the world, work - and Arbitration '. P. died at his home June 12, 1912, Mr.. and was buried at Pere Lachaise cemetery in Paris.