PEARSON Leicester( Canadian statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1957)
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Biography PEARSON Leicester
April 23, 1897, Mr.. - December 27, 1972
Canadian statesman Lester Bowles Pearson was born in Toronto (Ontario), the son of a Methodist priest E.A. Pearson and Anne Sarah Bowles. Demonstrated outstanding achievements in the age of 16 let.p. enrolled at Victoria College at the University of Toronto. However, in 1915. He interrupted his studies and enlisted in the Canadian army, who fought in Europe. Too young to participate in hostilities, P. served in Egypt, then in the Balkans. In 1917, Mr.. He was transferred to the Royal Air Force and attained the rank of lieutenant. During a training flight when his plane fell, but P. escaped unhurt. However, a few days later he was hit by a bus in London during the blackout, and in April 1918. was sent home by sea. It was at this time P. Mike got the nickname.
Returning to Canada, P. finally became a bachelor, and in 1919. enrolled in law school, Osgoode Hall, but quickly realized that he had no inclination to the right, and left her. Some time P. worked in Hamilton and in Chicago, but his work did not meet, having received a scholarship Fund Massey, P. enrolled in the College of St.. John, Oxford. The next two years he called the happiest in his life, he studied history and became famous as a hockey player.
Returning to Canada, Master, P. began to give lectures on modern history at the University of Toronto. In 1925, Mr.. He married one of the students, Marion Elspeth Moody, they have a son and daughter. In 1928, Mr.. P. became an assistant professor in the same year he was appointed to the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs. Soon it drew the attention of Prime Minister Richard Bedford Bennett, who included it in the Canadian delegation at the Imperial Conference, 1930. P. also participated in the World Disarmament Conference in 1933 ... 1934. Geneva. In 1935. P. was assigned to the High Commission of Canada in London, where he participated in the London Naval Conference.
After spending six years in London, in May 1941. P. returned to Ottawa, where he became Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. A year later, as an adviser to the embassy, he went to Washington. From 1944 to 1946. P. was Canadian Ambassador to the United States. While in Washington, P. played an important role in the UN administration for relief and rehabilitation. In 1944, Mr.. he attended a conference at Dumbarton Oaks, which laid the foundations of the UN. In 1945, Mr.. at a conference in San Francisco, adopted the Charter of the UN, P. unsuccessfully protested against the granting of the veto of the five permanent Security Council members.
In his role as Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, P. represented Canada at the conference in 1947, where it was decided to establish the state of Israel. A year later the Liberal Party suggested that P. post of Secretary for Foreign Affairs, and he had to plunge into the maelstrom of election campaign. In October 1948. He won a seat in the House of Commons, which holds nine years. As Foreign Secretary, P. prepared for the Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent speech in which he proposed the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Signing in 1949. contract P. led the Canadian delegation to NATO until 1957,. He also was chairman of the NATO Council in 1951 ... 1952.
Between 1946 and 1952. P. was the head of the Canadian delegation to the UN and was an excellent mediator in crises. In 1950, Mr.. he was a 'committee of three', to develop proposals for a ceasefire in the Korean War. The ceasefire signed two years later, almost copied the commission's recommendations. At the 7 th session of UN General Assembly II. was elected chairman.
P. had to mediate in 1956, when Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal. This step is alarmed by Israel, Britain, France. In response, Israel occupied the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. Two days later, France and Britain sent a fleet, and airborne units to restore the status of the channel. With the support of the Soviet Union, the U.S. introduced a Security Council resolution calling for a ceasefire and the withdrawal of all troops from Egypt. After Britain and France imposed a veto on the resolution, it was considered by the General Assembly and adopted in slightly modified form. Confident that this will be enough to end the conflict, P. proposed the creation of UN peacekeeping. With the adoption of the draft Anglo-French troops were replaced by forces under the command of the UN, thereby curtail hostilities.
For his role in resolving the Suez Crisis II. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1957. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Gun-nar Yang described the P. as a man, 'has made more than anybody else, to save the world' in the tense moments of 1956. 'Since the end of the last war situation in the world was not yet alarming, than during the Suez crisis', - said Mr.. Jan. He also praised the idea of P. Forces on UN peacekeeping.
While the Nobel Prize, P. talked about the 'four likah world - prosperity, power, politics and people'. He called for greater economic cooperation, which is able to address the economic causes of war, condemned the use of force, 'as an effective defense against missile weapons do not exist'. 'What we need - say GP - is the determination to use every opportunity to negotiate', to avoid the risk of war. 'Is it possible world, if people do not understand each drugaN - asked the question P. - Only in a climate of political freedom, mutual tolerance and compromise can be dealt with issues of peace '.
Although the role of P. in solving the Suez issue won international recognition, some Canadians blame him that he had prevented Britain to regain the channel. With the defeat of the Liberals in elections 1957. P. lost his ministerial post. Becoming party leader, P. exercises parliamentary opposition to the conservative government of John Difenbeykera. In 1963, Mr.. Liberals attacked the Conservatives defeat, and P. became Prime Minister. For five years he managed to strengthen the social legislation, to lay the foundations of what he called the 'good society', but his administration is very damaging small scandals related to corruption. In 1968. P. resigned and headed the committee of the World Bank's International Development. Liberal Party P. bequeathed more attentive to the needs of French-speaking Canadians. In 1972. Ottawa P. died of cancer.