Renault (Renault), Louis( French lawyer of the Nobel Peace Prize, 1907)
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Biography Renault (Renault), Louis
May 21, 1843, Mr.. - Feb. 8, 1918
French jurist Louis Renault was born in Autun (France). His father, a prosperous stationer, encourage intellectual development of boys. After graduating from the local lycee, Louis entered the College d'Oten, where he enjoyed the difference in philosophy, mathematics and literature. He continued his studies at the University of Dijon, where in 1861,. received a bachelor's degree in literature. The final phase of his education lasted seven years at the University of Paris, where P. studied law and received his doctorate.
Returning to Dijon, P. taught at the University of Roman and commercial law until 1873, when he received an invitation to work at the Faculty of the University of Paris. During the year, he read the lectures on criminal law, then he was asked to become a professor of international law. First P. reacted to the change specialization without any enthusiasm, but later gained fame brilliant lectures and book 'Introduction to International Law' ( "Introduction a l'etude du droit international"). Two years later, P. received the chair of international law at the University of Paris, in addition, he served professorial duties at the Free School of Political Sciences.
In 1880, Mr.. R. became director of the French diplomatic archives. By the time he managed to gain the reputation of the largest in France, a specialist in international law. In 1890, Mr.. Ministry of Foreign Affairs invited him to become a consultant on legal issues. In subsequent years, P. often represented France at international conferences on transport, military aviation, maritime affairs, credit, and also on the extension of the Geneva Convention 1864. For great achievements in 1903. He was awarded the title of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary.
Thorough knowledge of international law has made R. the most suitable companion for Leon Bourgeois at the Hague Peace Conference of 1899, where he participated in discussions on maritime issues. At the Hague Conference 1907. R. worked on the committee, determines the rights of neutral countries during naval warfare and the use of the Geneva Convention to naval battles. Status elders helped P. smooth out the conflicts between the various delegations. The conference concluded with P. prepared a communique.
As a member of the International Court of Arbitration at The Hague, R. enjoyed such prestige that he was attracted by hearing cases more often than any other lawyer. Among the processes which he led, and it was a case of Japanese tax. In its decision handed down in 1905, the Court found that the Japanese government has no right to tax the improvement of land, donated an indefinite period to citizens or to foreign countries.
Nobel Peace Prize 1907. R. shared with Ernesto Moneta. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Jorgen Levlann in his speech welcomed the P. as 'real genius of international law in France', noting the importance of the role he played in both the Hague Conference.
In his Nobel lecture, presented a year later, P. pointed to the growing complexity of international relations, which, according to him, demanded 'legal entity'. 'All that expands the scope of law in international relations - said P., - is the cause of peace'. He reminded the audience that, since the possibility of war persists, should be guaranteed by 'the interests of civilians, the sick and wounded'. Replying to critics, P. expressed the belief that war can be made less barbarous.
After receiving the Nobel Prize P. continued his scientific work, teach and participate in meetings of the International Court of Arbitration at The Hague. He was among the arbitrators 'case Casablanca' (1909), which had been involved in the French military authorities, the Germanic consul and the Government of Morocco, as well as in the case of Savarkar (1911) and several others.
P. married Juliette Tyaffe in 1873, the son of a son and several daughters. R. maintained creative activity until the end of life. Delivered a lecture on February 6, 1918, he went a little rest at his villa near Paris. There, he suddenly fell ill and died on February 8.
During his life, P., in addition to the Nobel Prize, was awarded many other honors. He had the reward states and 19 foreign honorary degrees from various universities. R. was awarded the Legion of Honor, was a member of the French Academy of moral and political sciences, and in 1914. was elected president of the Academy of International Law in The Hague.