Saavedra Lamas (Saavedra Lamas), Carlos( Argentine statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1936)
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Biography Saavedra Lamas (Saavedra Lamas), Carlos
November 1, 1878, Mr.. - May 5, 1959
Argentine statesman Carlos Saavedra Lamas was born in Buenos Aires in the family Saavedra Mariano Zabaleta and nee Luisa Lamas. Primary education he received in private, then studied at the Jesuit school and college Lacordaire. In 1903, Mr.. He graduated from the University of Buenos Aires.
After a lengthy trip abroad and study in Paris, SL. became a professor of law at the University of La Plata. Later, he was a professor at the University of Buenos Aires, which has introduced a course in Sociology, also taught political economy and constitutional law at the Law School. SL. published several books on labor legislation, which was especially interested in, along with international law.
State activities SL. engaged in 1906, when he was appointed Director of Public Credit Service. A year later he became secretary of the municipality of Buenos Aires, and in 1908. was first elected as a deputy national. Appointed Minister of Justice and Public Education in 1915. SL. barely had time to take office. In subsequent years he served as an unofficial adviser to the Legislative Chamber and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1927, Mr.. SL. became a delegate to the International Congress of Jurists in Rio de Janeiro, in 1928. chaired the International Labor Conference in Geneva.
In 1932, Mr.. General Agustin P. Justo, who became president of Argentina after two years of revolutionary government, appointed a SL Minister of Foreign Affairs. Shortly thereafter, Bolivia and Paraguay went to war because of the Chaco - the territory disputed since the end of 1825, Mr.. Spanish rule in Bolivia. Territory gradually populated in Paraguay, Bolivia, complete indifference, but with the discovery of oil deposits in the Andes, Bolivia was in need of access to the sea for transportation of oil. Access to the Pacific Ocean was lost by Bolivia after the war with Chile in 1884, so she hoped for access to the Atlantic on the Paraguay River, which flows through the Chaco. Paraguay refused to release land reclamation, and between the two countries in 1928. war broke. A ceasefire was reached fairly quickly, and began the lengthy negotiations. In mid-1932. hostilities resumed, and by 1935. toll has exceeded 100 thousand
After the failure of negotiations SL. attempted to end the conflict and simultaneously enhance the impact of his country in the international arena. In 1932, Mr.. He formulated the Declaration on August 3, which called the country of America does not recognize the change of borders by military means. SL. put forward a draft of the South American anti-war pact, which is considered a reliable means of preventing war.
Document SL. clearly been influenced by the Kellogg Pact - Brian (named in honor of Frank B. Kellogg and Aristide Briand) and the Stimson Doctrine (promulgated in 1932. U.S. Secretary of State Henry Stimson). As pact Kellogg - Briand, . Saavedra Lamas Pact called for the renunciation of wars of aggression, . like the Stimson Doctrine, . He claimed not to recognize the violent changes in boundaries, . however, . making the next step, . pact called non-belligerent countries to put pressure on the aggressive state and develop a mechanism of pacification,
. By the end of 1933. all American states have signed the pact, but the war over the Chaco is not prevented.
Continuing to work on the Bolivian-Paraguayan issue, SL. do not forget about other areas of international politics. In 1920, Mr.. Argentina withdrew from the League of Nations, SL. persuaded his government to return to the League in 1933, a year later, he announced to the international community its anti-war pact. By the time the pact was signed by 11 European countries.
American President Franklin D. Roosevelt believed SL. able statesman and a leading figure in Latin American politics. In the mid 30-ies. Roosevelt invited him to cooperate with the European Neighborhood Policy in Latin America. Despite his cautious attitude toward the U.S., not just to intervene militarily in Latin America, SL. began to play an active role in the Pan American Union, an organization aimed at deepening cooperation between American states.
In 1935, after practicing a number of possible decision by the Bolivian-Paraguayan issue, SL. tried to use the opportunity Antiwar Pact, signed by both countries, but not ratified either of the other. SL. called six neutral American countries - Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, Argentina and the United States - to create a conciliation commission, where the parties to the conflict could negotiate. Thanks to the commission on June 12 the same year was concluded Bolivian-Paraguayan agreement. A year later, SL. became chairman of the Assembly of the League of Nations.
During its peacekeeping role in the Bolivian-Paraguayan conflict SL. received the Nobel Peace Prize 1936. He became the first Latin Americans among the winners, and the news spread quickly across the continent. As chair of the Inter-American Conference on the Conservation of Peace (Buenos Aires), SL. unable to attend the awards ceremony, Nobel lecture, he also failed to. However, on 29 November, he made his radio broadcasts, which touched on the value premium.
'Society yearns for peace, - said SL. in his speech. - It's like life-giving rain to the earth, because it grows better life for mankind - the humble house of joy, peace, marches hand in hand with difficulty '. 'Aggressive war - continued to express SL. his philosophy of peace - not related to national defense, there is a collective crime. War means neglect of national interests, undermine and even death culture. It requires a senseless sacrifice of falsely understood courage, while the true courage involves assistance in improving living conditions'.
Critical comments on the award of SL. Nobel Peace Prize, were due to his close ties with the dictator Justo, in addition, in 1935. SL. received the Iron Cross from Hitler's government. However, it should be borne in mind that it had selected 10 countries in t.ch. Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor from the Government of France.
In 1938. SL. resigned and returned to his academic activities. From 1941 to 1943. He was president of the University of Buenos Aires until 1946. - Professor.
SL. married Rosa Sц?enz Peц?a, daughter of former President of Argentina, they had a son. SL. died in Buenos Aires after a brain hemorrhage at the age of 80 years.