HAMMARSKJö?LD (Hammarskjold), Doug( Swedish statesman and politician, Nobel Peace Prize, 1961)
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Biography HAMMARSKJö?LD (Hammarskjold), Doug
July 29, 1905, Mr.. - September 18, 1961
Swedish statesman and political figure Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjö²ld was born in Jö²nkö²ping (Sweden), in the family Knut Hjalmar Leonard Hammarskjold and Agnes Almkvist. Hammarskjold - one of the prominent Swedish names, its representatives have served in public office and in the army since 1610, when Peder Hammarskjö²ld was knighted for his bravery during the war with Denmark. Dag's father, a famous lawyer and university professor, in 1914 ... 1917. was the Swedish Prime Minister.
This inheritance could not help but influence the fate of X. In 1953, Mr.. He recalls: 'From the many generations of soldiers and statesmen, I inherited a belief that happiness comes only selfless work for the good of the country and humanity. This service requires not only a disregard for his personal interests, but also the ability to defend their beliefs. "
X. graduated from the University of Uppsala in 1925, receiving a degree in liberal arts - he paid special attention to linguistics, literature, history. In 1928, Mr.. He received a degree in economics in 1930 - on Legal Sciences, and in 1935. - A doctorate in political economy. The subject for some time completely captured his attention: the topic of his thesis was the theoretical and historical overview of market trends.
Joining in 1930. University X. became secretary of the Royal Commission on Unemployment and remained in that post until 1934. In 1934 ... 1935. He also served as adjunct professor of political economy. In 1935. H. became secretary of the Swedish bank, and a year later - Deputy Secretary of the Department of Finance. On this and other positions he and his brother Bo, Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Social Welfare, has developed a lot of laws that strengthened the welfare of the Swedes. In 1937, Mr.. H. participated in the Supervisory Board of the Department of Finance. Seven years (since 1941) he headed the Swedish bank.
While remaining neutral during the Second World War, Sweden nevertheless supported Norway, occupied by the Nazis in 1940. As a member of the Department of Finance X. visited London to discuss the issue of loans to the Norwegian government in exile, this task required great tact and caution to avoid conflict with Germany. In 1945, Mr.. they were negotiated on the first trade agreement between Sweden and the UK.
For X. These negotiations are an important experience in solving problems, useful to him in the Ministry of Finance. H. broadly drawn group of experts who have studied the problem from all points of view, summed up the recommendations, then re-analyzed the problem and develop solutions. At the talks the same way he helped the parties to explore all possible options and reach agreement through compromise. This approach has contributed much to the success of its international activities.
In 1946, Mr.. H. appointed financial expert of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which became a supporter of European Economic Cooperation. He represented Sweden at the organizational meeting, 1947. for 'Marshall Plan', a program developed by the U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall and providing substantial loans to European countries, whose economies suffered during the Second World War. As vice-chairman of the executive committee of the European Economic Community X. participated in the preparation of joint economic projects 'changing the whole structure of European trade'.
In 1948, Mr.. H. was appointed Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sweden, and in 1951. - Minister of State responsible for foreign economic relations. Occupying a nonpartisan post, he began to practice low-interest loans to European states - Sweden's win brought the strengthening of the international monetary system. Generous loans Norwegian provoked strong criticism from some members of the cabinet and opposition leaders, but X. managed to persuade the Government to support its policies, resulting in Sweden managed to restore a favorable balance of payments earlier than any other country in Europe after the Second World War.
As a supporter of political cooperation, X. still did not approve of the idea of military blocs, he believed that Sweden should remain neutral in the confrontation between East and West, while continuing its traditional policy. Therefore X. opposed to Swedish membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), but maintained the country's participation in the Council of Europe and the European Economic Community. In 1910,. He became chairman of the society 'The United Kingdom of Scandinavia', which aimed at strengthening economic cooperation.
In 1952, Mr.. H. first arrived in the United Nations as a vice-chairman of the Swedish delegation to the General Assembly. A year later, he headed the delegation, and in April he was elected UN Secretary-General. H. said that his election reflects' the desire to cooperate 'Big Five' (U.S., USSR, France, Britain, China), and stressed that he intends to be the inspiration and guide the decisions of the organization.
At a time when X. took office, the trust between the countries - parties to the UN declined to the limit. U.S. withdrew several of their representatives, who were suspected of communist sympathies. In turn, the Soviet Union, initially supported the candidature of Trygve Lie - the first UN Secretary-General, and later hit him with the attacks, accusing it of aiding the U.S. during the Korean War. Members of the international community began to incline to the view that the secretariat is no longer an independent, impartial body, which saw the authors of the UN Charter.
To put an end to this trend, X. reorganized the Secretariat in an effort to defend its independence of the States Parties. It reduced the General Assembly on the impact of his deputies. Federal Bureau of Investigation has lost the right to exercise control over the American UN employees.
Later X. sent efforts to consolidate the positions of the UN in international diplomacy. In his view, the Charter gave the right to UN Secretary General to discuss with the Heads of State any matter which in his view, could lead to international conflict. Since X. has taken center stage in the negotiations that the UN Security Council and General Assembly gave him considerable powers to prevent international crises. In 1954, Mr.. H. arrived in Beijing where he sought the release of 11 American prisoners, which the Chinese authorities have detained since the Korean War. Prisoners were released six months later.
In September 1956,. Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal, which led to a confrontation with Israel, Britain and France. November 3, when the British fleet moved to the shores of Egypt to open the channel strength, X. announced the establishment of UN peacekeeping operations, headed by Ralph Bunche. Organized X. only 48 hours, they became the first military units such. When all four powers recognized the UN forces, the crisis came to a successful conclusion.
. Other Middle East crisis erupted in 1958 when Jordan and Lebanon called for military help to the United States and Britain, because their safety was allegedly threatened with neighboring Arab states
. H. managed to convince the parties to resolve the dispute by peaceful means. UN Observer Group in Lebanon, housed, and staff supervision - in Jordan, resulting in the possible withdrawal of British and American troops.
Being a second term as Secretary-General, X. taken steps to expand the functions of the UN - he suggested that the States parties to consult with him in the spirit of the so-called preventive diplomacy. Convinced that the 'leading role in peacemaking are not speech, and no vote', X. sought to transform the UN from the world forum of complaints and recriminations in the guardian of international peace.
A new crisis arose on the African continent, where the Congo (now Zaire), declared its independence from Belgium. With the collapse of the Congolese army administration in the rebellion began, Katanga province seceded, in this situation, Belgium has carried out military intervention. In July, the new Congolese government asked the UN request for military assistance to restore peace and stability. The Security Council unanimously called on Belgium to withdraw its troops, but the resolution was not implemented. Prime Minister of Congo Patrice Lumumba further complicate the situation, sent a telegram to Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev that he would seek Soviet assistance, if the Western powers do not stop 'aggression in the Congo'. Soviet Union in response to branded X. as a defender of the colonial interests of the West.
The situation continued to deteriorate and in 1961, and the Congolese government invited X. visit Leopoldvill (now Kinshasa) for talks on UN aid. Hoping to bring the negotiations rebellious province and central government, X. flown to Katanga to meet with the leader of the separatists M. Tshombe. However, in a plane crash X. and all those accompanying him were killed.
X. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1961. - First prize was awarded posthumously. Speaking about the winner, . representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Gunnar Jan Dec. 10, said: 'Dag Hammarskjold often criticized and flagrant attack, . but he never got off the path he has chosen, . thanks to the UN has turned into an effective international organization, . able to breathe life into the principles, . expressed in the UN Charter, . managed by a strong secretariat and headed by a man, . whose feelings and actions are worthy of,
. Purpose Hammarskjold was the UN Charter to guide States'.
On behalf of the family X. Award received Rolf Edberg, Swedish Ambassador to Norway, with funds received from the Nobel Committee, was founded by Fondazione Hammarskjö²ld.
Highly educated people, X. particularly interested in philosophy, classical and modern literature, Christian theology. He deeply understood and appreciated poetry. In his leisure hours X. often translated the classics into Swedish, shortly before his death, he began to work with little-known book by Martin Buber.
Father X. died in 1953, and X. took his place among the 18 members of the Swedish Academy, which awards the Nobel Prize in literature. According to popular belief, in 1958. namely X. suggested that contradictory candidacy of Boris Pasternak, author of 'Doctor Zhivago', which describes the vicissitudes of life in revolutionary Russia. H. also supported the choice of the winner of 1960. - Saint-John Perse, his poem 'Chronicle' X. translated into Swedish. Apart from articles on finance, it was his only job, to see the light in life. In 1964, Mr.. the English translation published his diary under the heading 'Milestones'. H. once described his writing in her diary 'something like a White Paper on negotiations with itself and with God'.
Well spoke English, French and German languages, X. was a brilliant orator, widely known for his sense of humor and ease with which he has set personal contact. An avid sportsman, he has achieved remarkable success in gymnastics. Love for Nature Sweden forced him to return there every year for skiing and mountaineering. For some time X. served as president of the Swedish Club climbers.
Shortly after the death of X. his countrymen have begun collecting funds to support and in other countries, in order to create an unusual monument to the man and his ideals. In 1962. began to operate the International Council of Dag Hammarskjö²ld Foundation, its purpose, as stated in the statute - "to promote the social, political and economic progress of nations, whose future X. taken so close to my heart '. Foundation, . whose headquarters is located in Uppsala, . organizes seminars and conferences on the problems of 'third world', . publishes books and magazines, . biannual, . 'Dialogue of development - Journal of cooperation in international development' ( 'Development Dialogue Journal of International Development Cooperation'),
. In 1965, Mr.. Alva Myrdal, while Chairman of the Fund, wrote: 'Fund ... seeks simultaneously to accommodate the practical needs of the new states and to be successor of the ideas and efforts of the late Dag Hammarskjold. "