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Hopkins, Frederick Goulend

( English biochemist. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1929)

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Biography Hopkins, Frederick Goulend

June 20, 1861, Mr.. - May 16, 1947
English biochemist Frederick Hopkins Goulend was born in Eastbourne (East Sussex) Elizabeth (Goulend) and Frederick Hopkins. His cousin - poet Gerard Manley Hopkins. Father H., bookseller and passionate fan of science, died suddenly shortly after the birth of son. Fond of solitude and prone to arguments, Frederick spent a lot of time reading Dickens and writing poetry. At the age of 8 he was first allowed to use the microscope to examine the father's living organisms, which he caught in the sea. The fact that X. seen, developed his interest in science is much more than boring schooling, although the number was no one who could explain to the child what he saw.
In 1871, Mr.. his mother moved to Infild, rural area not far from London to live with his mother and brother, and X. was sent to London City school, where his achievements in chemistry and English were awarded. Bored and lonely, he preferred the school visits to museums and libraries, and although it has not been formally expelled from school, but offered to leave. After that, he was identified in a private school with a three-year training. When X. 17 years of age, the family, believing that his education is finished, to find him a job as an insurance employee. However, shortly after school hours, he wrote an article about a purple smoke, which is issued by the bombardier beetle, which is accepted for publication in the journal 'Entomologist' ( 'The Entomologist'). Later he writes: 'Since then I have a biochemist in the heart'. During the next three years he studied analytical chemistry at pharmaceutical firm. Using a small legacy from his grandfather, X. able to study chemistry, first in the Royal School in South Kensington, and then at University College London. A high score obtained on the exam in chemistry, gave him the opportunity to become assistant to Sir Thomas Stevenson, an expert in toxicology and forensic experts in the hospital GUY. Working with Stevenson, whom he regarded as 'a born leader and a remarkable', X. received a bachelor of science in the University of London. On the recommendation of Stevenson in 1888, he. was enrolled in medical school to GUY Hull Scholarship for research.
In Guy X. continued clinical laboratory experiments. In 1891, Mr.. he published a description of the deposition of uric acid with ammonium chloride - an analytical method that was used for many years. He showed, . that uric acid is also a component of the white pigment of some butterflies, this conclusion was the result of his childish curiosity to all insect, . which he carried through his life, . and his most recent publications are related to pigmentation in insects.,
. After receiving medical degree in 1894, Mr. Guy
. H. remain in school for another four years a teacher of physiology, chemistry, toxicology and Physics. In the past two years, X. headed the clinical research department, where laboratory studies were used in the diagnosis and treatment. In their experiments in the field of protein chemistry, he developed methods for extracting proteins from the blood and egg white, as well as methods for the crystallization of proteins in large quantities for further research.
In 1898, Mr.. H. Michael Foster was invited to Cambridge University as a researcher and professor of chemical physiology, now called biochemistry. Foster, a very influential scholar and teacher, supported the desire of X. work in this area. Position X. was low-paid, and he filled up his budget, dealing with medical students in the College of Emmanuel, scholar and teacher whom he was in 1906
. At Cambridge, the usual teaching that included experimental work with proteins, resulting X
. to the discovery of amino acids - tryptophan. When protein obtained by the student has not acquired a blue color when setting a standard color test Wojciech Adamkiewicz, X. suggested that the analysis of such a color reaction may lead to new ideas about the structure of the protein. He singled out and identified tryptophan, which enriched the growing list of other amino acids (building blocks of proteins), already open Emil Fischer, Albrecht Kossel and other researchers. In 1906, Mr.. H. showed that different proteins fed to mice, have different effects on the growth of the body, especially the proteins, which lack tryptophan, are insufficient for the needs of the organism. He concluded that the properties of proteins depend on the types present in these amino. Assuming that the properties of the protein are determined by an adequate diet, he fed mice food consisting of pork fat, starch and casein (milk protein). When stopped the growth of animals, he added a small amount of milk, which contains some of the missing factors necessary for growth. These, as he called, 'the additional factors of food' were subsequently named by the Polish chemist Kazimierz Funk vitamins. In 1910,. for a short time work X. was interrupted, which was associated with reduced disability as a result of overwork. In 1912, Mr.. He reported on the results of their research in the article "Experiments on nutrition, illustrating the importance of additional factors in the normal diet '(' Feeding Experiments Illustrating the Importance of Accessory Factors in Normal Dietaries'). H. reviewed their experiences with vitamins as secondary compared to the studies concerning the intermediate metabolism, a complex series of reactions of oxidation and reduction, in which cells derive energy. According to the prevailing theory in science, a giant molecule, a so-called nut, provides these reactions, but the available chemical methods were inadequate for their study. H. showed that the intermediate metabolism is a series of conventional chemical reactions. By demonstrating, . that muscle while reducing the oxygen content of lactic acid accumulates, . He and his colleague Walter Fletcher laid the groundwork for the opening of the energy cycle, metabolism of carbohydrates for muscle contraction, . Archibald made in,
. Hill and Otto Meyerhof.
In 1921, Mr.. H. highlighted tripeptide formed by three amino acids, which called glutathione, necessary as a carrier of oxygen in the cells of plants and animals. He also opened ksantinoksidazu to catalyze the oxidation of xanthine and hypoxanthine (colorless crystalline substances) in uric acid.
One of the most valuable qualities of X. was his ability to pioneer in the science, the ability to identify major issues in dispute and cause them to interest other researchers. In 1914, Mr.. H. was appointed head of the department of biochemistry at Cambridge. In 1925, Mr.. He moved to the newly built Institute of Biochemistry, Dunn.
In 1929, Mr.. H. shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Christiaan Eykmanom 'for the discovery of vitamins, stimulate the processes of growth'. In his Nobel lecture 'The history of the study vitamins' ( 'Earlier History of Vitamin Research') X. reminded his audience that in his article for 1912. noted the existence of 'the necessary food, not taken seriously as a matter of physiological necessity'. Paying tribute Kazimierz Funk for his contribution to the study of vitamins, X. remarked that he was 'the first who realized the true significance of findings'.
From 1930 to 1935. H. After 1935. He continued his experiments on insect pigments, and intermediate metabolism, although his sight had gone down and my health deteriorated.
In 1898, Mr.. H. married Jessie Anne Stevens, they have a son, who later became a doctor, and two daughters, one of which was a biochemist. His colleague, Henry X. Dale described the X. as' slightly built man, and poor health ... His face was usually thoughtful, moody, but quickly covered sincere attention, radiating humor, or the desire to share with another person of his difficulties'. He died in Cambridge May 16, 1947
In 1925, Mr.. H. assigned a knighthood and in 1935. He was awarded the Order of Merit. His numerous awards included the Royal Medal (1918) and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society (1926).

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Hopkins, Frederick Goulend, photo, biography Hopkins, Frederick Goulend  English biochemist. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1929, photo, biography
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