EULER (Euler), Ulf von( Swedish physiologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1970)
Comments for EULER (Euler), Ulf von
Biography EULER (Euler), Ulf von
February 7, 1905, Mr.. - March 18, 1983
Swedish physiologist Ulf Svante von Euler was born in Stockholm. He was the second son in the family. His father, Hans von Euler-Chelpin was a biochemist, and mother, Astrid Cleve - botanist. Receiving schooling in Stockholm and Karlstadt, Ulf in 1922. entered the Karolinska Institute.
In 1925, Mr.. E. received the prize for investigating the properties of blood in febrile patients, prompting him to further research. He began working at the Department of Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, led by Goran Liliestranda. In 1930. E. received a medical degree and in the same year he became an assistant professor of pharmacology at the Karolinska Institute. Then, having received Rockefeller scholarship, E. able in 1930 ... 1931. study abroad, particularly in London where he worked in the laboratory of Henry X. Dale.
In the mid 20-ies. Otto Levi found that in the vegetative (autonomous) nervous system impulses are transmitted to the nerve cells in the muscle fibers using the chemical neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Dale, an experienced pharmacologist and one of the leading scientists in the field of study of the effect of acetylcholine in various tissues and organs, instructed E. prove the existence of acetylcholine in the gut. Working on this topic with a member of Dale, John Geddumom, E. identified a chemical which have in respect of the muscles of many of the properties of acetylcholine. However, this substance was not by acetylcholine, a new compound, which researchers called substance P. They found that substance P - a polypeptide; way.
was discovered the first of a large group of peptides acting in the tissues of the brain and intestine. It is now believed that these peptides play a role not of neurotransmitters and modulators of muscle activity.
Receiving additional support the Rockefeller Foundation, E. continued to work in Birmingham (United Kingdom), followed by Frankfurt (Germany) and, together with Kornei Heymans in Ghent (Belgium). As he wrote later, early experiments with substance P and other substances 'not only aroused interest in the search for other active substances in biological tissues, but given the necessary knowledge to ensure that such searches were successful'. At the end of 1931. He returned to Stockholm and in 1935. made another major discovery: using purification techniques developed by Hugo Hugo Theorell, he pointed out the seminal fluid substance that reduces blood pressure and influencing the tone of smooth muscles of various organs. E. This substance, called prostaglandin, and instructed to engage in its further purification and study of the properties of their colleagues - biochemist Sune Bergstrц╤m, who has devoted to this and their future academic career.
. Known, . that the autonomic nervous system consists of two divisions - the sympathetic, . determining the body's response to stress or intense activity, . and parasympathetic, . stimulation of which leads to a decrease in the frequency and strength of heart contractions, . enhance the secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract,
. Levi in the original studies of chemical neurotransmitters, found that the mediator of the parasympathetic nervous system is acetylcholine. Dale found that this substance is also responsible for the transfer of excitation from the nerve endings in skeletal fibers (arbitrary) muscles. In 30-ies. scientists have argued about the nature of the mediator of the sympathetic nervous system. Although some researchers have tended to the fact that this neurotransmitter is similar to the hormone, adrenal medulla, their data were not sufficiently convincing.
. Ascertained that the study of transmission of excitation in the sympathetic nervous system opens up 'opportunity to obtain new information', E
. engaged in the analysis of tissues and extracts of nerves. Later he wrote that 'in these extracts clearly discovered adrenalinopodobnoe substance, but it became clear that the spectrum of its action is not quite identical with the spectrum of action of adrenaline. The question arose: Is not this substance noradrenalinomN 'Norepinephrine (also called norepinephrine) - a precursor of adrenaline, both substances belong to a group of catecholamines due to the similarity of their overall structure and sympathomimetic action (ie,
. the same steps as in the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system).
In 1939, Mr.. E. was appointed professor of physiology at the Karolinska Institute and held this position until his retirement in 1971. Since during the Second World War Sweden remained neutral, E. in the first half of the 40-ies. not have to go into military service and to interrupt the study. In 1946, Mr.. He completed work on the isolation and identification of noradrenaline as a mediator of the sympathetic nervous system.
Extensive studies in several laboratories in 50 ... 60's. Showed that many of catecholamines in t.ch. andrenalin, norepinephrine and dopamine precursor of norepinephrine, play an important role as mediators of the central nervous system, including the brain. Neurons containing catecholamines were identified adrenergicheskimi neurons. The leading role played in studies of E., . his students and colleagues from the Karolinska Institute, developed a method of fluorescent detection of catechol-Minova, . which these substances are easily found in tissues or extracts, . an important step in this area,
. Own work E. initially focused on the study of the distribution of noradrenaline in different tissues at different degrees of emotional or physical stress. This work led to a significant practical contribution to aviation medicine, and E. become a major specialist in this field.
In the late 50-ies. E. and his colleague Nils-ц┘ke Hillarp found that catecholamines in adrenergic neurons and are transported in vesicles similar to those to whom Bernard Kai gave a crucial role in the storage and release of acetylcholine. The following 10 years of E. were devoted to a detailed study of education, allocation and exchange of catecholamines. These studies were largely similar to the work, . which worked in the United States Julius Akselrod, . However, he and his staff focused on biochemical aspects of the formation of catecholamines and the relationship between catecholamines and various psychotropic substances,
. As for IE, it opens it the prostaglandins that are used today, particularly in obstetrics and gynecology, more is known.
From 1953 to 1960. E. was a member of the Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine, and from 1961 to 1965. - His secretary. In 1965, Mr.. He was appointed chairman of the Nobel Foundation.
In 1970. E. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with Axelrod and Katz 'for their discoveries concerning the humoral mediators of nerve endings and mechanisms for their storage, release and inactivation ". As said in the congratulatory speech scientist at the Karolinska Institute Bore Uvnas, . this work is' not only deepened the knowledge in the field of theoretical medicine, . but is essential for the understanding and treatment of diseases of the central peripheral nervous system ', . such as Parkinson's disease and hypertension.,
. In 1930
. E. married Jana Sodenstirn; in the family they were born four children. In 1957. E. divorced his first wife and in 1958. married Countess Dagmar Kronsted. In 1983. He died of arteriosclerosis.
E. been awarded many prizes, t. h. International awards Gardner Fund (1961), Anders Yar Prize in Medicine, University of Oslo (1965), Prize Stouffera the American Sociological Association (1967) and the Milan International Prize 'Madonnina' (1970). E. had honorary doctorates Umea University, Rio de Janeiro, Dijon, Ghent, Tц╪bingen, Buenos Aires, Edinburgh, Madrid, and Gustavus Adolphus College. He was a member of the Academies of Sciences in Stockholm and Copenhagen and the Helgoland Academy of Natural Scientists 'Leopoldina'. In addition, he was an honorary member of the American College of Physicians and a member of the Swedish College of Physicians, the Italian Pharmacological Society, the Swedish Society for Endocrinology Society and akromeditsiny.