ANDRIä+ Ivo( Yugoslav poet and novelist, author of novels and short stories, the Nobel Prize for Literature, 1961)
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Biography ANDRIä+ Ivo
October 10, 1892, Mr.. - March 13, 1975
Yugoslav poet and novelist, author of novels and short stories, Ivo Andric was born in the village Dolak in Bosnia, which is now part of Yugoslavia. His father, a mechanic, died when a. was three years old, and his mother moved with her son to her aunt, who lived near Vysehrad, where the boy received a strict Catholic upbringing.
From a very early age. had the opportunity to observe the life of various peoples who inhabited the Balkans, a motley mix of cultures. At various times, Bosnia was provided under the authority of the Orthodox Byzantines, Muslims, Turks, and a small Slavic aristocracy, which is why a long time was in isolation, away from the mainstream of the development of European nations. Nevertheless, in the XIX century. this region became the object of growing imperial ambitions of Russia and Austria-Hungary. In 1908, Mr.. Bosnia, shared the fate of its Balkan neighbors, was formally annexed by Austria-Hungary.
Soon after the annexation, as a high school student in Sarajevo,. joined the revolutionary organization 'Mlada Bosna', which opposed the Austro-Hungarian Habsburg rule and sought to unite the South Slavs and independence. When Gavrilo Princip, a member of this organization, 28 June 1914. committed the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the number of arrests fell and A., who was sentenced to three years in prison. In prison, A. read Dostoevsky and the Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard. Under the influence of a purely pessimistic outlook of the authors of A. wrote two books of poems 'From the Sea' ( 'Ex Ponto', 1918) and 'unrest' ( 'Nemiri', 1920). 'There is no other truth than the mountain, a different reality than the suffering' - he wrote in one of his poems.
After the war, A. traveling and studying philology, philosophy and history at the University of Zagreb, Vienna, Krakow and Graz, where in 1923. a doctor's degree with a thesis on the culture of Bosnia.
Shortly after beginning a diplomatic career A., who is in Europe, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, formed after the war and in 1929. received the name of Yugoslavia. By this time A. left poetry and turned to prose, his first story was published in 1920,. Occupying a diplomatic posts in various European capitals, and. not able to devote much time to literature. Nevertheless, from 1924 to 1936. He has published three collections of short stories, a significant place in which hold history and folklore of various ethnic groups in Bosnia and in which tangible reasons of futility and vanity of human existence.
In 1939, Mr.. A. appointed by the Yugoslav ambassador to Germany and remained in Berlin until the beginning germanskogo invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941. Receiving a message that an attack is inevitable, A. quickly returned to his homeland and arrived in Belgrade for a few hours before the first bombing of German cities.
During the German occupation of A. virtually under house arrest in his Belgrade apartment. Unable to take part in the resistance movement, he began to write again. From 1941 to 1945. writer creates a trilogy, which will be his masterpiece: 'Bridge on the Drina' ( 'Na Drini cuprija'), 'Travnik Chronicle' ( 'Travnicka chronica') and 'Young Lady' ( 'Gospodjica'). All three of the novel saw the light in 1945
The most popular in the 'Bosnian trilogy' enjoys 'Bridge on the Drina'. In this novel, which is translated most often described the struggle between Jews, Muslims and Catholics over the past three and a half centuries of Bosnian history. Bridge over the Drina River, built by the Turks in the XVI century. Is a symbol of the fact that 'life is an unfathomable miracle, because it is constantly dissipated. But, despite that ... and remains invincible '. In prose, A. actions and characters of individuals are given in the context of living history.
In the second book of the trilogy, "Travnik Chronicle ', A. describes the moral conflict that arises when the French and Austrian consuls are fighting for influence over the Turkish vizier of Bosnia in the early XIX. In 'Young Lady' A. draws accurate, psychologically verified portrait stingy, unhappy woman. The action takes place between the two world wars, depicted historical view is narrower than in the previous two books of the trilogy, which shows significant changes in style and method of the writer. Each of the three book trilogy completely original, indicating that the technical skill and versatility of talent of their author.
After the war, known a. in Yugoslavia is growing every year, but now he is not provincial bytopisatelem, . but one of the most outstanding creative personalities of the country, . who managed to find the most significant features of the complicated history of the Yugoslav, . reflect the complex problems of Yugoslav society,
. Supporter of Prime Minister Tito, who admitted to Bosnia one of the six republics that make up the Yugoslav federation, a. after the war joined the Communist Party, and later became president of the Union of Yugoslav Writers. For significant works of this period include the 'New History' ( 'Nove pripovetke', . 1948) collection of short stories, . on events of the Second World War and the postwar period, . and 'Damn yard' ( 'Prokleta avlija', . 1954) - story, . in which on behalf of one of the prisoners Bosniak describes the hard life of prisoners in the period of Turkish domination.,
. In 1959, Mr.
. A. married Militsa Babich, artist-designer of the Belgrade National Theater. Around the same time, he was elected to the Federal People's Assembly of Bosnia and held this position for several years.
In 1961. A. won the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the epic force of talent that helped in its entirety to reveal people's lives and problems associated with the history of his country'. Noting that A. uses a Bosnian folk legend as a kind of key to understanding the higher philosophical truths, Anders Esterling, a representative of the Swedish Academy, in his speech, in particular, said that 'the study of history and philosophy inevitably led A. to the question of what forces ultimately contributed to the consolidation of the people in the hard days of the general fragmentation '. In his acceptance speech A. referred to 'the role of literature and writer in the history of mankind'. 'All history from earliest times - said a writer - is, in essence, a story about the meaning of human life. The manner and form of the narrative may be, of course, vary depending on the circumstances and historical features of the time when they were written. but the incentive to tell and retell the story remains the same '. In response to allegations of neglect of contemporary issues because of the history and passion. remarked that 'problems of the past remain valid to this day, because we are facing the same old problems'. The question that sought to answer all genuine writers, emphasized in his speech, A., - is the question of what it means to be alive at any given time in history, what it means to be human.
And the rest of life. held in Yugoslavia, where he became the first cultural figure to be awarded the prize 'for work life', the annual award, which is usually awarded to politicians or scientists. When A. died suddenly of a stroke, Tito said that 'the writer's death is a great loss for the multinational art of Yugoslavia, for the whole country'.
Although the writer's work is little known in the West, from A. have admirers, commending his book. As the Yugoslav critic Peter Dzhadzhich, A. In his book 'Bridge on the Drina' 'attempted to interpret the meaning of human destiny'. Czech poet and literary critic E.D. Goy said that 'despite the significant differences between early and late works of A., his art is indivisible'. According to the same scientist and literary critic Thomas Ekman, in his works A. penetrates into 'such remarkable for their wealth of depth of the human spirit, which are hidden from normal logic and perception ... Describing the momentous, shattering situation, and. showed the most exalted and the most base, the achievements and failures in human destiny, which are fleeting, and at the same time play a crucial role for human life '.
'Although in the works A. there is deep pessimism, . motives and the futility of existence of nothingness, . - Says the American literary critic of Yugoslav origin Nikolai Moravsevich, . - In his works nevertheless hear faith in the success of man's struggle against evil and compassion for his suffering ',
. Plasticity of the narration, the depth of psychological analysis and the universality of symbolism A. remain in Serbian literature unsurpassed concludes Moravsevich.
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