BELLO Henry (Boll Heinrich)( German writer and novelist, the Nobel Prize for Literature, 1972)
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Biography BELLO Henry (Boll Heinrich)
Theodor Heinrich BцTll, German writer and novelist, was born December 21, 1917, Mr.. in Cologne, one of the largest cities in the Rhine valley, in a large family cabinetmaker Viktor BцTll and Marie (Hermanns) Bell. Ancestors Used. fled from England under Henry XIII: Like all devout Catholics, they were persecuted by the Anglican Church.
. After graduating from high school in Cologne, B., who wrote poems and stories since childhood, was one of the few students in the class who did not take Hitler
. Nevertheless, a year after graduating from high school boy was involved in forced servitude, and in 1939. conscripted. Served B. Corporal in the Eastern and Western fronts, was wounded several times and finally in 1945. was captured by the Americans, then spent several months in a POW camp in the south of France.
Upon returning to his hometown B. briefly studied at the University of Cologne, then worked in his father's workshop in the city bureau of population statistics and do not stop writing - in 1949. was published and received positive reviews from critics first novel 'The train was on time' ( 'Der Zug war punktlich'), the story of a young soldier, who will return to the front and quick death. 'The train was on time' - this is the first product of B. a series of books, . which describes the futility of war and the hardships of the postwar years, these are 'The Wanderer, . when you come to Spa ... ' ( 'Wanderer, . kommst du nach Spa ', . 1950), . 'Where have you been, . AdamN '(' Wo warst du, . AdamN ', . 1951) and 'Bread of early years' ( 'Das Brot der fruhcn Jahre', . 1955),
. Author's style of B., who wrote simply and clearly focused on the revival of the German language after the bombastic style of the Nazi regime.
. Stepping into her first song 'Billiards at half past nine' ( 'Billiard um halbzehn', 1959) on the manner Trummer literatur ( 'rubble literature'), B
. tells of a family of famous architects Cologne. Although the novel is limited to just one day, . with reminiscences and digressions in the novel tells of three generations - panoramic novel covers the period from the last years of the reign of Kaiser Wilhelm to the thriving 'new' Germany 50-ies,
. "Billiards at half past nine 'differs significantly from the earlier works of B. - And not just the scale of presentation, but the formal complexity. 'This book - written German critic Henry Plard - take great solace to the reader, as it shows healing properties of human love'.
In 60-ies. product B. become compositionally more complex. Effects of the novel 'The Clown' ( 'Ansichten eines Clowns', . 1963) also takes place during one day, in the center of the story is a young man, . who spoke by phone from the person whose story is told, the hero prefers to play the role of a clown, . just not to obey the hypocrisy of postwar society,
. 'Here we are again confronted with the major themes of BA: the Nazi past of representatives of the new government and the role of the Catholic Church in post-war Germany' - wrote a German critic Dieter Henick.
. The theme of 'absenteeism' ( 'Entfernung von der Truppe', 1964) and 'end of one business' ( 'Das Ende einer Dienstfahrt', 1966) is also an opposition official authorities
. A longer and much more complex compared with the previous works of the novel 'Group Portrait of a lady' ( 'Gruppenbild mit Dame', . 1971) written in the form of reportage, . consisting of interviews and documents about Leni Pfeiffer, . thus reveal the fate of another sixty,
. 'Tracing for half a century of German history of the life of Leni Pfeiffer - wrote an American critic, Richard Locke, B. created a novel in praise of universal human values'.
'Group Portrait with Lady' was mentioned during the award B. Nobel Prize (1972), obtained by the writer 'for creativity, which combines a broad scope of reality from the high art of creating characters and which has become a major contribution to the revival of German literature'. 'This revival, . said in his speech, the representative of the Swedish Academy, Karl Ragnar Gierow, . - Comparable to the resurrection from the ashes of Culture, . which, . seemed, . was doomed to total destruction, and yet, . our common joys and benefits of, . gave new shoots'.,
. By the time B
. received the Nobel Prize, his books became widely known not only in West but in East Germany and even in the Soviet Union, where it was sold several million copies of his works. However, B. played a prominent role in the activities of PEN, the international writers' organization, through which he supported the writers have been harassed in the countries of the communist regime. After Alexander Solzhenitsyn in 1974. was expelled from the Soviet Union, he was before he left for Paris he lived at B.
In the same year, when B. helped Solzhenitsyn, he wrote a journalistic story 'Reviled Honor of Katharina Blum' ( 'Die verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum'), which has strongly criticized the sale of Journalism. This is a story about the unjustly accused by a woman who eventually kills her calumnied reporter. In 1972, when the press was full of material about the terrorist group Baader Meynhof, B. wrote the novel 'Under the escort of care (' Fursorgliche Vlagerung '. 1979), which describes the devastating social consequences arising from the need to strengthen security measures at the time of mass violence.
In 1942, Mr.. B. married Anna Marie Cseh, who bore him two sons. Together with his wife B. German translation of such American writers as Bernard Malamud and Salinger. Died B. the age of 67 years, being near Bonn, a visit to one of his sons. Also in 1985, Mr.. issued the very first novel, the writer 'Soldatskoe heritage' ( 'Das Vermachtnis'), which was written in 1947, but published for the first time. 'Soldatskoe legacy' tells of the bloody events that took place during the war in the Atlantic and the Eastern Front. Despite the fact that the novel is certain strain, says the American writer William Boyd, 'Soldatskoe heritage' is the product of a mature and very significant, 'he breathes on the hard-won clarity and wisdom'.
. In his novels, short stories, plays and essays, amounting to nearly forty volumes, B
. sometimes portrayed in a satirical way - Germany during the Second World War and the postwar period. As wrote the English critic and scholar cu. Yuill, 'B. always been a writer of a large scale, as concern for the fate of a whole generation of Germans, and the individual, forced to live in a huge modern urban anthills'. However, not all critics highly praised talent B. 'Most often, we hear accusations that his work is dominated by sentimentalism and idealism that he was not always able to adequately express their intentions' - wrote an American scholar, Robert K. Conard.
Attacks B. on the practicality of modern society seem to American criticism of Peter Demetsu too naive. "For a moral imperative B., - wrote Demets, in fact conceals a profound aversion to the everyday, invisible, pragmatic actions. All or Nothing '. According to the American scientist Theodore Tsiolkovsky, 'B. is one of the few post-war German writers, who created what most likely be called ... standardized, fictional world, fed by moral preaching '. Comparing Cologne B. with William Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha County, Tsiolkovsky also observes: 'B. not only inflicted on the literary map of Germany is one area that should recognize his exclusive property, but also created a reputation as a leading bytopisatelya Germany middle of the century '.