August 4, 1859, Mr.. - 19 February 1952
Norwegian writer Knut Hamsun
(Pedersen real name) was born in Lome, in Gudbransdalenskoy Valley, an agricultural area in Central Norway. His parents. Torah (Oldsdatter) and Peder Pedersen, settled in Garmutrete, on a small farm, where G. and his three older brothers and two younger sisters had early childhood. When the boy was 3 years old, the family moved to Hamar, a town in Nordland, located about 100 miles north of the Arctic Circle, where the parents have rented Gamsund, small farm, owned by Hans Olsen, Uncle D. matrilineal. Next six years, Mr.. spent in an idyllic setting: cows, admiring the beauty of the Norwegian fjords and snow-covered mountain peaks.
Soon, however, the family fell into debt bondage to Olsen, and 9-year-old G. forced to work for his uncle, stern pious man who often beat him and did not give a. Being unable to bear humiliation, D. in 1873. runs into the scrap, but the next year returns to Hamar and works in the shop. In 1875, Mr.. boy is wandering life of a peddler, and then arranged for the shoemaker in the northern city of BodцT. It is here that created his first piece, the story 'Shadow Man' ( "Den Gaadefulde"), which was published in 1877, when Mr.. was 18 years old.
The following year, Mr.. teaches at a school in Vesterolene, and then became assistant to the sheriff court, in the library which discovers Bernsterne Bjornson, Henrik Ibsen, and other leading Scandinavian writers. At this time, Mr.. produces novel 'Berger' ( "Bjorger", 1878), whose eponymous hero wrote great poems about his hard life.
The money nurlanskogo trader T. in 1878. sent to Christiania (now Oslo), but the writer's work can not support themselves, squandering the savings, lives in poverty and eventually becomes a road worker in Eastern Norway. In 1882, having obtained letters of introduction to influential emigrants from Norway, he went to the United States, but ties it is not enough, and Mr.. forced to work first farmhand in Wisconsin, and then secretary of the Norwegian preacher in Minnesota. This young man is seriously ill, doctors put nepodtverdivshiysya, however, the diagnosis of tuberculosis, and he returns home.
When G. arrived in 1884. in Oslo, all symptoms of bronchitis seems to have disappeared for a while he lived in Valderse, where under the pseudonym of Knut
Gamsund (later the 'd' because of a typographical error has disappeared), wrote a paper on Mark Twain. In Oslo, his literary career was not so good, Mr.. back into poverty, and then, in 1886, again coming to the United States. Arriving in Chicago, he first worked streetcar conductor, and in the summer of rotten wheat fields in North Dakotyyu. Disappointed in their literary endeavors, . he then went back to Europe in Copenhagen, . while the center of the Scandinavian publishing, . shows the story begun by Edward Brandes, . brother of the influential Danish literary critic Georg Brandes, . editor of the Copenhagen daily newspaper, . at Brandeis equally impressed by how jaded view G., . and an excerpt from his novel,
. At the end of that year the story appeared in the pages of one of the Danish literary journals, and in 1890. was published entirely in Copenhagen called 'Hunger' ( "Suit").
'Hunger' immediately created a sensation and created a T. reputation as a serious writer. In this novel Mr.. breaks with the tradition accusatory realism, which then prevailed in the Scandinavian prose, and rejects the ruling at the time the idea that the task of literature is to improve the human condition. The story, essentially, has no story and tells of a young man from the provinces, who lives in Oslo, and dreams of becoming a writer. Quite confident in his own genius, . he prefers to suffer from poverty, . than abandon ambitions' This is the hero of Dostoevsky, . - American critic wrote Alrik Gustafson - sick in body and soul, . experiencing the pangs of hunger, . he turns his inner life into a solid hallucination ',
. Suffers from the protagonist 'Hunger', not only from lack of food, but also from a lack of social contacts, from sexual dissatisfaction, inability to express themselves. His aloofness that anticipates an anti-hero literature of XX century.
As one of translators, contemporary American poet Robert Bly, 'liveliness and sharpness of the prose G. shocked all '. The book is short, succinct phrases, . clear, . clear descriptions alternate with deliberately subjective, . meaningful 'Hunger' was written at a time, . When Arthur Schopenhauer, . Eduard von Hartmann, . Friedrich Nietzsche, and August Strindberg calls attention to the complex subconscious forces, . that govern the human personality,
. Own concept of subjective prose G. formulated in an essay entitled 'From the subconscious life of the soul' ( "Fra det ubevidste Sjaeleliv") and appeared in the same year as the 'Hunger'. Rejecting the conventions of objective prose, . the writer proposes to examine 'secret movements of the soul, . occurring in the remotest depths of the subconscious, . analyze incalculable chaos of impressions, . through a magnifying glass to consider the refined life of the imagination, . flow of thoughts and feelings',
. again uses a subjective method in the novel 'The Mysteries' ( "Mystener", 1892), which refers to a quack, who appears in the seaside village and puzzled people with his strange behavior. Roman 'Pan' ( "Pan", 1894) written in the form of memories Glan Thomas, who refuses to civilized existence and lives the life of a hunter and fisherman near the provincial town in Nordland. 'I tried similar to Rousseau's to provide something like a cult of nature, sensitivity, more precisely, hypersensitive soul' - admitted D. his friend, while working on the 'Pan'. Exalted descriptions of nature expresses the euphoria, which sought to find himself, and his main character, and mystically pantheistically identified with nurlanskoy village. Flaming passion Glan to Edwards, spoiled, willful daughter of a local merchant, creates in his mind the emotional chaos that ultimately leads the hero to commit suicide.
G. - Recognized author of novels and essays, but his pen also belong to the poetic and dramatic works. From 1895 to 1898. He wrote a dramatic trilogy about the life of the philosopher: 'At the gates of the kingdom' ( "Ved rikets port", 1895), 'Drama of life' ( "Livets spill", 1896) and 'sunset' ( "Aftenrode", 1898). The general opinion of critics, in their plays G. was unable to portray the characters of the heroes as deeply as he could in the novels. Most of the poetic works of Mr.. burned before their publication, but in 1904. He publishes a collection of poems 'A wild chorus' ( "Det vilde kor"), which is not inferior to his best prose.
Since the beginning of XX century. G. wrote lengthy novels, where many actors and the story comes from a third party, such as 'Children of the century' ( "Bern av tiden", 1913) and its sequel 'City Segelfoss' ( "Segelfossby", 1915). According to James I. McFarlane, . one of the interpreters G., . these and subsequent novels 'have shaped demonstration established and generally pastoral (even feudal) system of values of the writer: anti-intellectualism and apolitical in combination with a strong bias against trader spirit'.,
. In moving to D
. the farm in 1911. impact, coupled with his alienation from society and the opposition especially in connection with the events of World War I - Industrial Age. These sentiments pervaded the novel 'Juices land' ( "Markens grede"), which was issued in 1917. It is told with great affection about the life of Norwegian farmers Isak and Inger, retained their centuries-long attachment to the land and loyalty to patriarchal traditions.
It is 'for such a monumental work, as "Juice of the earth"', r. in 1920. was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature. The representative of the Swedish Academy, Harald JцTrn in his speech said: 'Those who seek in literature ... truthful representation of reality, will find in 'juices of the earth' story about the life as any man living, wherever he may be, wherever he worked '. Jernej even compared the novel G. with the didactic poems of Hesiod. Read the Nobel lecture by Mr.. refused.
A year later, after the release of 'Juice lands' G. Nerholm purchased the estate in southern Norway, where the combined literary work with the agricultural. Roman 'Women at the Well' ( "Konerne ved vandposten") appeared in 1920,. The cynical and hopeless, this novel tells of the extinction of a small seaside village that is contaminated with false, with the author's view, the values of the modern world. Then came the 'last chapter' ( "Siste kapitel", 1923), a dark novel about rural health centers.
Experiencing depression associated with malevolent feedback on their books, Mr.. briefly treated by psychoanalysis, and then wrote a trilogy 'Strays' ( "Landstrykere", 1927), 'August' ( "August", 1930) and 'But life goes on' ( "Men livet lever", 1933), the main character of which is vagrant named August. Although these three novels, Mr.. returns to the theme of social exclusion, powerlessness in August was at this time, irreversible. Last novel G. 'The ring is closed' ( "Ringen sluttet") issued in 1936. It describes the aimless life of a man whose hopes are not to be fulfilled, but which nevertheless remains, according to GM, 'master of its kind'.
With age, T. becoming more reactionary: in 1934. He openly declares its support for the Nazis. Although the writer had never joined the Norwegian Nazi party, and has published several pro-fascist articles published during the German occupation of Norway, and in 1943. he met in Germany with Goebbels and Hitler. Thousands of readers to protest author returned his books. At the end of the war Mr.. and his wife were arrested. Autumn 1945. writer was placed in a psychiatric clinic in Oslo, where he spent four months, after which he was transferred to a retirement home in Landvike. In 1947, Mr.. He appeared before the court, was found guilty of aiding and abetting the enemy and sentenced to pay 425 thousand. Norwegian kroner (about 80 thousand. dollars at the then exchange rate), but because of the 'intellectual degradation' jail escape. 'The overgrown paths' ( "Pa gjengrodde stier"), a story about the trial, appeared in 1949, when Mr.. was 90 years old. The book is extremely lively, Robert Bly called it 'still alive, concise and bright', which, however, in no way justifies the behavior of F. wartime. Nevertheless, this book certainly contributed to the revival of interest in the creative writer.
In 1898, Mr.. G. married Berglyut Beh, of wedlock with whom he had a daughter. In 1906, Mr.. couple divorced, and two years later, he fell in love with the actress Mary Anderson, who was younger than his twenty-three years. They married in 1909, they had two daughters and two sons. During the investigation into Mr.. in 1947. Maria revealed intimate details of their marriage, and an angry Mr.. refused to see her in the next three years, but since 1950, Mr.. again they lived together until the death of the writer, followed on Feb. 19, 1952
. Many critics agree that GM, with its inherent subjectivity, fragmented, lyrical, a violation of the sequence, is the founder of modern prose
. 'To date, Mr.. - Is the only Norwegian writer apart from Ibsen and Undset, which is a classic of world literature ', - says Harald Nц¬ss. Agrees with him Alrik Gustafson, who says that the book Mr.. bribe not denounce, . a 'purely literary merits and remembered perfectly well defined characters alive, . unprecedented wealth of literary devices and, . perhaps, . primarily its style, . that sensitivity to, . sincerity of the sound is pure poetry. ",