July 2, 1877, Mr.. - August 9, 1962
German novelist, poet, critic and writer Herman Hesse
was born in a family of missionaries, pietists and publishers of theological literature in g. Calw in Wц╪rttemberg. Writer's mother, Maria (hundert) Hesse
, was a philologist, and missionary for many years lived in India, married the father of Mr.. out, already a widow with two sons. Johannes Hesse
, father of the writer, in his time also engaged in missionary activity in India.
In 1880, Mr.. family moved to Basel, where his father, Mr.. taught at the missionary school until 1886, when Hess again returned to Calw. Although Mr.. childhood dream to become a poet, his parents hoped that he would follow family tradition and prepared him for a career theologian. In fulfilling their desire, in 1890. he entered the Latin School in Gц╤ppingen, and next year turns into a Protestant seminary in Maulbronn. 'I was diligent, but not very capable boy - remember GM - and I had great difficulty to fulfill all the requirements of the seminary'. But Mr.. tried, pietists of it did not work, and after an unsuccessful attempt to flee the boy was expelled from the seminary. Studied G. in other schools - but equally unsuccessful.
For some time the young man worked in his father's publishing house, and then went through a series of professions: he was a journeyman, an apprentice bookseller, a watchmaker, and finally, in 1895. found work seller of books in the university town of Tuebingen. Here he had the opportunity to read a lot (especially the young man fond of Goethe and German Romanticism), and continue their self -. Marching into 1899. a literary society 'Small Circle' ( 'Le Petit Cenacle'), G. published his first book: a volume of poems 'romantic song' ( 'Romantische Lieder') and a collection of short stories and poems in prose 'An hour after midnight,' ( 'Eine Stunde hinter Mitternacht'). In the same year he began working a bookseller in Basel.
First novel G. 'Posthumous writings and poems of Herman Laushera' ( 'Hinterlassene Schriften und Gedichte von Hermann
Lauscher') appeared in 1901, . but literary success came to the writer only after three years, . When his second novel 'Peter Kamentsind' ( 'Peter Camenzind'),
. Then G. left his job, went to the village and began to live solely on income from their works. In 1904. He married Mary Bernuyi, the couple had three children.
'Peter Kamentsind', as the other writer's novels, autobiographical. Here T. As for the first time, his favorite topic, which was subsequently repeated in many of his works: the quest for identity and integrity LEARNING. In 1906, Mr.. He wrote the story "Beneath the Wheel '(' Unterm Rad '), which was inspired by memories of studying in the seminary and that examines the problem of the creative personality in the bourgeois society. During these years, Mr.. wrote many essays and essays in various periodicals and until 1912. working co-editor of the journal 'March' ( 'Marz'). His novel 'Gertrude' ( 'Gertrud') appeared in 1910, and the following year Mr.. travels to India, on his return from producing a collection of short stories, essays and poems 'From India' ( 'Aus Indien', 1913). In 1914, Mr.. published novel 'Roshalde' ( 'Rosshalde').
In 1912, Mr.. G. and his family finally settled in Switzerland in 1923. receive Swiss citizenship. As a pacifist, Mr.. opposed the aggressive nationalism of their homeland, which has led to a drop in the popularity of the writer in Germany, and personal insults at him. However, during the First World War, Mr.. supporting charitable organizations through a prisoner of war in Berne and publishes a newspaper, as well as a series of books for the German soldiers. G. the opinion that the war - it is the inevitable result of a spiritual crisis of European civilization and that a writer should promote the birth of a new world.
In 1916, Mr.. the burdens of the war years, permanent illness Mentally ill son, Martin and his wife, but also because of his father's death came hard on the writer a nervous breakdown from which he was treated by psychoanalysis, the student of Carl Jung. Influenced by the theories of Jung G. wrote the novel 'Demian' ( 'Demian', 1919), which publishes under the pseudonym Emil Sinclair. 'Demian' gained great popularity among the youth, who returned from war and trying to establish life in postwar Germany. Thomas Mann thought the book 'is not less bold, . than 'Ulysses' James Joyce and 'The Counterfeiters' Andre Gide: 'Demian' captured the soul of time, . causing a feeling of gratitude for a generation of young people, . who saw in the novel expression of inner life and the problems, . encountered in their environment ',
. Caught between their domestic standing and dangerous world of sensual experience, the hero of the novel is faced with the duality of his own nature. This topic has found further expression in the later works of GM, which reveals the contradiction between nature and spirit, body and mind.
In 1919, Mr.. G. leaves his family and moved to Montagnola, to the south of Switzerland. And in 1923, a year after the release of 'Siddhartha' ( 'Siddhartha'), the writer officially divorced from his wife. The place of 'Siddhartha' India is a time of Gautama Buddha. In this tale reflects a journey G. in India, as well as long-standing interest of the writer of the Eastern religions. In 1924, Mr.. G. marries Ruth Wenger, but this marriage lasted only three years.
In the novel 'Steppenwolf' ( 'Der Steppenwolf'), the next significant work of the writer, Mr.. continues to develop the Faustian theme of dualism in the example of his hero, Harry Haller restless artist, seeking the meaning of life. According to the modern literary critic Ernst Rose, 'Steppenwolf' was the first German novel, penetrated into the depths of the subconscious in search of spiritual integrity '. In 'Narcissus and Goldmund' ( 'Narziss und Goldmund', 1930), where the action takes place in medieval Germany, is opposed to the spirit of life, asceticism - vitality.
In 1931, Mr.. G. marries a third time - this time for Ninon Dolbin - and in the same year began work on his masterpiece 'Glass Bead Game' ( 'Das Glasperlenspiel'), which was published in 1943. This utopian novel is a biography of Josef Knecht, 'Master of the game in the beads', intellectual classes, is fond of high spiritual elite of the country Castalia early XXV in. In this, the main book, Mr.. repeated the main themes of early novels writer. According to the American literary critic Theodor Tsiolkovsky, the novel 'Glass Bead Game "proves that T. 'preferred ... responsible actions thoughtless rebellion. 'Glass Bead Game' - this is not a telescope aimed at the distant future, but a mirror reflecting the severity of an exciting paradigm of today's reality. "
In 1946, Mr.. G. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the inspired creativity, in which all the more evident in the classical ideals of humanism, as well as for brilliant style'. In his speech, the representative of the Swedish Academy Anders Esterling said that Mr.. handed out awards 'for poetic achievement of human kindness - a man who in a tragic era was able to protect the true humanism'. G. unable to attend the ceremony, and on his behalf was made by Swedish Minister Henry Vallotton, who in reply, quoted Zigurda Klurmana, President of the Royal Swedish Academy: 'D. encourages us: forward, rising above! Win yourself! After all, being a man - it means to suffer from an incurable duality, this means torn between good and evil '.
After receiving the Nobel Prize G. has not written a single major product. Continued to receive his essays, letters, new translations of novels. In recent years the writer lived uninterruptedly in Switzerland, where he died in 1962. the age of 85, in his sleep from a brain hemorrhage.
In addition to the Nobel Prize G. Zurich was awarded a literary prize Gottfried Keller, the Frankfurt Goethe Prize, Peace Prize of the West Association of publishers and booksellers, and also awarded an honorary doctoral degree, University of Bern. In 1926, Mr.. G. was elected to the Prussian Academy of Writers, but four years later, disappointed with what the political developments in Germany, resigned from the academy.
While creativity G. appreciated by such outstanding writers as Thomas Mann, Gide, Eliot, at the time of award of the Nobel Prize, he was known mainly only germanoyazychnyh European countries. Over the past 25 years, the book Mr.. translated into many languages, new monographs and critical articles about his work - to date, D. considered one of the greatest writers of the XX century. According to the T. Tsiolkovsky, GA, as well as' any great artist of his generation ... appeals to the central problem of the beginning of XX century: the destruction of traditional reality in all spheres of life. G. able to show the extent to which the new is traditional in their thoughts and form, his work - a sort of bridge between romanticism and existentialism. "
In 60 ... 70-ies. thank Mr.. beyond elite circles, creative writers interested in contemporary youth culture. Some critics have treated this ironic, considering that the youth did Mr.. its prophet, not particularly penetrating into the essence of his creativity. Particularly increased in popularity among the young writers of the United States, where he established the cult of Mr.. Meanwhile, the writer's work was the subject of a rigorous analysis of many literary scholars and critics, particularly George Steiner and Jeffrey Semmonza. 'It is one thing - to seek unity - wrote Semmonz - more - definitely a foothold in it and consider all violations of harmony as minor and trivial ...' By the beginning of 80's. Mr. cult. began to subside, the interest of critics to the novelist decreased. Despite this, Mr.. still occupies a central place in the literature of XX century.