Eyvind Johnson( Swedish writer and novelist, the Nobel Prize for Literature, 1974)
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Biography Eyvind Johnson
July 29, 1900, Mr.. - August 25, 1976
Werner Uluf Eyvind Johnson, Swedish writer and novelist, was born in Saltshobadene, located in the northernmost province of Sweden Norbottene. Uluf His father worked in the mines, soon after the birth of her son mentally ill, and her mother J. Sevia Gustafsdatter, which could not simultaneously take care of her son and a sick husband, and entrusted the boy's upbringing relatives.
After retiring in 13 years of school, J. began working at the factory for the production of gravel. Eivind teenager to educate ourselves, read the classics, especially Greek. For 19 years he has worked digger, apprentice electrician, plasterer, wood rafters, a worker at a sawmill, a sweets seller, projectionist, the secretary of the union. Working in the wood industry, he organized the strike, which was subsequently dismissed. In 1919, Mr.. J. arrived in Stockholm, where he began to trade union activities and politics. Here he began to write. Two years, . disillusioned with politics and left without money, . young man first went to Berlin, . where he worked in the newspaper, . and two years later - in Paris, . where for seven years he lived only on odd jobs from the publication of short stories and novels, . as well as articles for the Swedish press,
. In 1927, Mr.. J. married Oz Christophersen.
A young man J. was eager to rebuild the world, considering that for this purpose are suitable not only politics, but a writer's work. Having, as the American literary Leif Sjoberg, its own 'university of life', J. tried to compensate for the lack of education reading. Not surprisingly, the work of other writers had a strong influence on his early works. His first three novels 'Tim and justice' ( 'Timans och rattfardigheten', 1925), 'City in darkness' ( 'Stad i morker'. 1927) and 'City of light' ( 'Stad i ljus'. 1928) are largely imitative in style and content, they traced the influence of new ideas and styles finds Andre Gide, Marcel Proust, James Joyce, Sigmund Freud and Henri Bergson. 'City in the Dark' - a series of satirical short stories about life in the Arctic town as 'City of light' - the history of disillusioned young writer living in Paris among bohemian. In these early novels, Hamlet-like hesitations heroes, their uncertainty and anguish reflect deep disappointment of the Y.
. In the novel 'Memoirs' ( 'Minnas', 1928) follows in the footsteps of the writer Proust and Freud, to show an overwhelming sexual desire and painful memories pursue individual
. In the 'Comment to the fall of the stars' ( 'Kommentar till ett stjarnfall', 1929), a novel about corruption in capitalist society, and. the first time in Swedish literature applies the technique of 'stream of consciousness', developed by James Joyce. English critic Gavin Orton describes this book as' a game of imagination, rather than a psychological document, as the author interprets the events in the novel, giving himself the most bizarre fantasies. "
Returning to Sweden in 1930. already-established writer, J. fond of the reformist ideas of the Social-Democrats. This period of his spiritual development was reflected in the novel 'A Farewell to Hamlet' ( 'Avsked till Hamlet', 1930). However, in the 'Bobinake' ( 'Bobinack', 1932), a satire on the Swedish middle class, as well as in the novel 'The rain at dawn' ( 'Regn in gryningen', 1933), a lyrical pamphlet about primitive society, TH. returns to the biting social criticism. Richness of imagination distinguishes two collections of short stories of this period - 'Night of here' ( 'Natten ar har', . 1932), . included some rather original stories of Ancient Greece, . and 'again, . Captain '(' An en gang, . kapten ', . 1934), . which is based on the writer's memories of his youth, . held in Northern Sweden.,
. From 1934 to 1937
. J. wrote 'a novel about Ulufe' ( 'Romanen om Olof'), the four-story about teenagers, which became a classic of Swedish literature. In the center is basically an autobiographical tetralogy is Uluf Pearson, who from an immature 14-year-old youngster turns to the end of the story in the 19-year-old staunch labor strike leader. History teenager - it is also a detailed chronicle of the struggle of the proletariat of the Swedish. The first volume of the tetralogy "It was 1914 '(' Nu var det 1914 ') in 1970. been translated into English under the name '1914 '.
In 1936, Mr.. J. wife died, and two years after her death he married Sille Frankenhoyser, writer and translator, with whom he had three children. As a result of their professional collaboration appeared on the Swedish language translations of works of Camus, France, Sartre, Ionesco, as well as books of Danish, German and British writers
In the late 30-ies. J., worried about the spread of Nazism, were highly critical of the Nazis and their supporters in the Swedish book 'Night maneuvers (' Nattovning ', 1938). During the Second World War, with Willy Brandt, a writer publishes a newspaper of the Norwegian Resistance 'handshake' ( 'Et Handslag').
From 1941 to 1943. J. working on a long, technically complicated by the novel trilogy 'Krilon' ( 'Krilon'), published in 1941. and republished in 1943 and 1945. On a purely narrative level - is the history of Stockholm's land agent, Johannes Krilona and his associates, . are trying to save face in neutral Sweden during the war, . but on the allegorical level - a symbol of the unceasing struggle against evil person,
. 'Krilon' - is, in essence, multilayered tale or myth, that of J., as a rule, prefers a realistic presentation.
The same technique ц┴. uses in the novel 'Surf' ( 'Strandernas svall', . 1946), . very, . perhaps, . known his work, . translated into English as "Return to Ithaca Odysseus, . retold in a modern fashion '(' Return to Ithaca: The Odyssey Retold as a Modern Novel '),
. In the 'money' J. Homer uses the poem to analyze the values and concerns of XX century., demonstrating an old truth: 'the more things change, the more they remain themselves'. Leif Sjoberg notes that the comparison of events of different ages is a central theme of post-war historical novels, J., starting with 'Priboya'.
In the late 40-ies. J. has traveled extensively throughout Europe as the Swedish representative of UNESCO, wrote the novel 'Dreams roses and fire' ( 'Drommar om rosor och eld', 1949), which focuses on the trial of witches in Luhden in France in the XVII. This theme is also interested in such writers as Aldous Huxley and John Whiting, director Ken Russell.
In 1953, Mr.. J. received an honorary degree of Doctor of the University of Gothenburg. After the publication of the novel 'Clouds over Metaponsonom' ( 'Molnen over Matapontion', 1957), combining the story of traveling in Italy 50-ies. with retelling 'Anabasis' Xenophon, J. was elected a member of the Swedish Academy. 'Days of his Serene Highness' ( 'Has Nades', 1960), a novel about totalitarianism, it is felt by some residents of the country, conquered by Charlemagne, brought J. Nordic Council literary prize in 1962. For 'days of his Serene Highness' followed by 'novel about the prisoners' ( 'Nagra steg mot tystnaden', 1973), where the barbarous customs of antiquity are compared with those that exist in a supposedly civilized XX century.
In 1974. J. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'narrative art, receive their sight, space and time and serves as Freedom'. This award ц┴. shared with his countryman Harry Martinson, . and, . Although voices were, . accusing the Nobel committee in the short-sightedness and bias, . member of the Swedish Academy, Karl Ragnar Gierow in her welcome speech commended the 'tide of experience and creative energy, . which brought both the winner, . entered into our literature, not in order, . to destroy and plunder, . but to, . to enrich it with your talent ',
. In reply, J. reiterated his belief that 'the focus of all true art, already established and still emerging, is a man'.
Born with the century, the problems that troubled him as a writer, J. died in Stockholm at the age of 76 years. Of the 46 books he had written 30 novels, of which only 4 have been translated into English.
Maximum readers outside Scandinavia poorly acquainted with the works of J., but scientists are well known Swedish writer. Lars Varma, a Swedish literary critic, has described J. as' a rationalist and humanist ', who' in his novels, defending democracy, common sense and reasonable standards of conduct. With passionate anger, hidden under the mask of irony, he was opposed to violence, oppression and tyranny of power-hungry '. Sjц╤berg notes the interest ц┴. to 'problems of time, . comparison of temporal layers', . pays tribute to his literary techniques, . allows to combine the style of classic authors with a style of such modern writers, . Thomas Mann or William Faulkner, . and at the same time protect the identity, . be yourself ',