genus. July 25, 1905
Austrian novelist and playwright of Bulgarian origin, Elias Canetti
was born in a Sephardic Jewish family in Ruschuke (Bulgaria), multi-ethnic port city in the lower reaches of the Danube. He was the eldest of three sons in a family of prosperous merchants whose native language was Ladino, a dialect of Spanish spoken by Sephardim. Grandpa K. with his father's side knew seventeen languages, and the parents of Elias
, Matilda (Arditti) and Jacques Canetti
, who was educated in Vienna, the home spoke only in German - in the same language began to write, and their son, Elias
When K. was 6 years old, . his family moved to Manchester, . where the boy entered the school, . learned English and began to read the classics, . as urged by his father, . which at one time had to be abandoned literature and engage in traditional domestic cotton production,
. According to K., the father said to him: 'Thou shalt do what you like'. Less than a year to his father. died, and his mother returned with the children on the continent, where she became engaged with K. German, that the boy was able to go to school in Vienna. It is the influence of mother-to. explains his love for this language. Later, he wrote that without a mother and a German language, which are closely intertwined in the minds of the writer, his 'future life would be meaningless and incomprehensible'.
After three years of study in the Vienna school to. from 1916. by 1921. studied in Zurich, which he later would call 'paradise of his youth'. During these years the young man makes his first literary work, a play in verse, 'Junius Brutus' ( 'Junius Brutus'). In 1921, Mr.. K. mother, worried that her son lives in Zurich, too carefree life, took him to Frankfurt in the hope that the harsh conditions of postwar Germany back the youth a sense of reality. Here K. three years passed high-school, after which he returned to Vienna, where, behind her mother, went to Vienna University for Department of Chemistry, and graduated in 1929. Nevertheless, because of the long-standing desire to become a writer, but also because of complete lack of interest in the chemistry of the young man devoted himself entirely to literature. At this time, K. visit the famous Austrian satirist Karl Kraus, whose influence, in the words of the AK, was the pop in his desire to learn. 'combine language and identity'. Later. said that it was Kraus taught him the art of listening: "Listening to him, I could not then do not listen to myself '.
Visited in 1928. in Berlin, where K. met with Bertolt Brecht, Isaak Babel and George Grosche, an aspiring novelist who conceived a series of novels about human folly, each of which the hero was supposed to provide a particular type of maniac.
Thus, in 1935. appeared novel 'Blinding' ( 'Die Blendung') - the first and last of a series conceived by writer of madmen. The hero of the novel Kean, a scholar-recluse, lives in a Viennese apartment, hammered his huge library. Keane's obsession begins with the fact that he hastily married his mistress of the home, which put him in the 'light' steeped in depravity of the city, making the hero finally goes mad and ends with him.
. The novel, in which, according to critics, to
. been ahead of his time and expose fascism, was praised by Thomas Mann and other major writers of the pre-war. A few years after the novel he was officially banned in Nazi Germany. Subsequently, the British novelist Iris Murdoch called 'Blinding' 'one of the few great books of our century'. Mer-dock devoted to the. his novel 'The Flight of the magician', and the AK, probably served as the prototype for its 'wizard', all-powerful philosopher, the hero of the novel.
In 30-ies. K. wrote two plays - 'Wedding' ( 'Die Hochzeit', 1932) and 'The Comedy of Vanity' ( 'Die Komodie der Eitelkeit', 1934), which ridiculed human weaknesses and which are the precursor to the theater of the absurd. A more recent drama to. 'Limited duration' ( 'Die Befristeten', . 1952), . set in England in 1956, . - A philosophical play about a society, . in which everyone knows the exact time of his death, as in the earlier plays, . the 'limited term' playwright uses the device of the theater of the absurd.,
. Distribution of Nazism and the systematic persecution of Jews in Germany led to
. leave Vienna for Paris. When the Nazi noose over Europe was delayed even tighter, the writer moved to London, where he lives to this day. In London, By. begin a multi-year research work, which resulted in creating his masterpiece 'weight and power' ( 'Mass und Macht', 1960), a multifaceted study of mass movements with the assistance of folklore, mythology, literature and history. The idea of this work appeared to have. influenced by the events of that day, which he called the most decisive in his life: July 15, 1927. The future writer had witnessed the fire in Vienna's Palace of Justice in flames after a group of rebellious workers. Deeply affected by what he saw, K. decided to study the psychology of the crowd.
In 1981. K. received the Nobel Prize for Literature "for works marked by the breadth of vision, wealth of ideas and artistic power '. In his welcoming speech, Johannes Edfeld, . Member of the Swedish Academy, . praised the 'great novel' discomfort 'as the most outstanding works of K.', . adding, . that 'in the book so many fantastic and demonic, . that involuntarily suggest themselves with associations such Russian writers of the XIX century., . as Gogol and Dostoevsky,
. Then Edfeld called 'array and the power of' 'authoritative work, which aims to explain and expose ... religious authorities'. Although K. attended the awards ceremony, Nobel lecture, he did not read.
Has published his major work, On. continues to write books about the psychology of literary creation. Such, for example, 'Another process Kafka: Letters to Felice' ( 'Der andere Prozess: Kafkas Briefe an Felice', 1969), which attempts to feel the connection between life and work of Kafka. K. released, and two autobiographical books: 'Saved language' ( 'Die gerettete Zunge', 1980) and 'The torch in the ear' ( 'Die Fackel im Ohr', 1982).
At the time of receipt of the Nobel Prize to. was best known to Western European readers, who knew German and could appreciate a clear economical language in the tradition of Goethe. One of the interpreters K., Joachim Noygroshel, believed that style to. at various times been different: 'In his early works are very complicated syntax, but the memories of its transparent and directly. Although he wrote in German, a language that is for him unlearned why the style of his works is more accurately the diversity and richness'.
Like many writers of his generation, K. was forced to postpone the expulsion, which has repeatedly been subjected to his ancestors. 'Since I am a Jew, the language of my intellect remains German, - said K., - but I carry myself in the heritage of all peoples'. 'U K-exile - as noted in the report of the Swedish Academy - is only one homeland and birthplace of this - the German language'.
Thanks to 'blindness' to. occupied a prominent place in the tradition of European literature, represented by Kafka, and after this novel was translated into other languages, to. received wide recognition as a Western reader, and in academic circles, where his fame continued to grow consistently. For his work, having universal human qualities, he was named 'writer XVIII century. Living in the XX'. According to the critic George Steiner, 'the mere existence of such a writer as AK, is an honor for literature'.
Iris Murdoch remarked that 'By. accomplished what philosophers should do and what they did before ... He also demonstrated the interaction of 'mythical' with the everyday in human life '. American critic Susan Sontag said of K. as a man, 'keen sense of responsibility for his words and in his works he tries to share with you what I learned thanks to its attentive attitude to the world. And this is not some kind of dogma, but a mixture of pain, fervor, grief and euphoria. Passionate consciousness generates passion. "
In 1934, Mr.. K. married Venice Toubner-Calderon, with whom he first met at one of the lectures of Karl Kraus in 1924. After her death (1963) writer married a second time at the Hera Bushor lives with his wife and son in Zurich and London. British citizenship to. received in 1952
In addition to the Nobel Prize (K. became the first Bulgarian - Nobel laureate), the writer has been awarded many literary awards, including the International Prize of Paris (1949), literary awards, Mr.. Vienna (1966), Munich Georg Bц?chner Prize (1972), Dortmund Nelly Sachs Prize (1976) and Kafka Prize (1981), one of the most prestigious literary awards in Austria.