December 30, 1865, Mr.. - 18 January 1936 Rudyard Kipling
, English poet, prose writer and novelist, was born in Bombay in the family of John Lockwood Kipling
, rector and professor of the Bombay School of Art, and Alice (McDonald) Kipling
. Father was a poet, sculptor and designer, her mother appeared in local magazines.
At the age of 6 years, as was the custom in angloindiyskih families, Rudyard
and his younger sister were sent to study in England. They lived in a private hostel, and went on holidays with relatives the mother, the family of Pre-Raphaelite artist Edward Burne-school Jones. Experiences of the Child, which pursued the cruel landlady, reflected in the novel to. 'Black Sheep' ( "Baa Baa, Black Sheep", 1888), as well as in the novel 'The lights went out' ( "The Light That Failed", 1890) and in his autobiography (1937).
In 1878, Mr.. K. was sent to the Devonian school where the sons of officers were preparing to enter the prestigious military academy. Director of the school was one of the members of the aesthetic circle, which consisted of Burne-Jones and William Morris. Although at first the boy badly battered by bullies, classmates, in the end he loved the school, described them in a collection of short stories 'Stalky and K б°' ( "Stalky and Co", 1899). Since the school did not give diplomas for admission to Oxford or Cambridge, and short-sightedness had prevented young men have chosen a military career, the importance of education to. ended. His father was impressed by the stories written by his son in college, he found a job in the English-language edition of 'civil and military newspapers' ( "Civil and Military Gazette"), reached out in Lahore (India), and in October 1882, having lived in England 11 years to. returned to India.
In this paper, K. uses the knowledge of the Hindustani language, which he has not forgotten during his stay in England, as well as familiarity with the Anglo-Indian society for the image of the India, which is known to us from his books. For the newspaper in which he works, to. regularly writes stories and poems. The first collection of poems by writers 'Departmental Song' ( "Departmental Ditties", 1886) was issued a limited edition and sold so quickly that it was reissued in the same year. Collected short stories 'simple stories from the mountains' ( "Plain Tales From the Hills") appeared two years later. From 1887 to 1889. K. written six collections of short stories for the series 'library of the Indian Railways', intended for travelers, which brought him wide popularity both in India and throughout the British Empire.
. In an effort to get to talk about himself in England, to
. returned there in Japan and North America. Before leaving, he concludes in Allahabad contract with the local newspaper 'Pioneer' ( "Pioner") to write travel sketches. In October 1889. writer is coming to London, where he had already become famous and even get the reputation of a literary heir to Charles Dickens. His collections for the series 'library of the Indian Railways' were reprinted in England in 1890. and enthusiastically accepted by the critics.
In London, By. acquainted with a young American publisher Beylstirom Wolcott, with whom working on the story 'Naulahka' ( "The Naulahka", 1892). Shortly after the Beylstir died of typhus in 1892, K. married to his sister Caroline
. Young couple moved to Brattlboro (Vermont), where they had two daughters
. In Vermont, K. wrote 'Many austere ( "Many Inventions", . 1893), . two volumes of short stories and poems - 'The Jungle Book' ( "The Jungle Book, . 1894) and 'The Second Jungle Book' ( "The Second Jungle Book", . 1895), . and the poetry collection 'Seven Seas' ( "The Seven Seas", . 1896),
. Published in 1897. novel 'Brave explorers' ( "Captains Courageous") is dedicated to the fishermen of New England.
Discontent with life in Vermont and a serious conflict with the By-law forced. leave the United States and return with his family in England, where he was soon able to restore the previous position in the literary world. In the papers he published poems, including 'last chant' ( "Recessional", 1897), which contains a warning against the irresponsible use of national power. Best novel to. considered 'Kim' ( "Kirn", 1901), which describes the adventures of 'native-born boy' and wandering around India Buddhist monk.
In 1898, Mr.. while in K. family (shortly before the writer was born the son) in New York, he and his eldest daughter became ill with pneumonia;
daughter died - it was a loss, which is reflected in many stories to. those years. After beginning angloburskoy war in 1899. K. spent several months in South Africa, the army newspaper editing and performing the duties of political and military consultant.
In 1902, Mr.. K. buys a country house in the county of Sussex, where he remained until the end of life. In the same year he wrote 'Tales of just' ( "Just So Stories"), 'Elf with Hill Prost ( "Puck of Pook's Hill"). Collection of children's stories from the history of ancient Britain out in 1906. In these years to. is also active in political activities in favor of conservatives and against feminism and the Irish home rule, wrote about the impending war with Germany.
In 1907, Mr.. K. received the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for observation, vivid imagination, maturity of ideas and remarkable talent of the narrator'. While in Stockholm to. arrived, the traditional speech to say he did not.
By this time, K. written thirteen volumes of short stories, four novels, three books of short stories for children, several collections of travel writing, essays, newspaper articles and hundreds of poems. In 1907, Mr.. He was also awarded honorary degrees from Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh and Durham University, in addition, he received awards from the universities of Paris, Strasbourg, Athens and Toronto.
. Shortly after receiving the Nobel Prize for creative activity to
. begins to decrease. During the First World War, which killed his only son, K. wife works for the Red Cross. In 1917, Mr.. K. produces 'All kinds of creatures' ( "A Diversity of Creatures") - a collection of poems and short stories. After the war, the writer has traveled extensively, including as a member of the Commission on military graves. During one such trip to France in 1922. K. acquainted with the English King George V, which tied him for many years a great friendship. During this period the writer is adjacent to the right wing Conservative Party, and in 1923. released book 'The Irish Guards in the Great War' ( "The Irish Guards in the Great War"), dedicated to the regiment, where he served as his son.
In 1926 and 1932. published two more collections of short stories to. Since 1915. writer was suffering from gastritis, which later turned out to be ulcer. Died By. in London from gastrointestinal bleeding in 1936, two days before his friend, King George V. The writer was buried in Poets Corner in Westminster Abbey. His autobiography 'Something about myself' ( "Something of Myself") came a year after his death.
In 1890, Mr.. Oscar Wilde called K. 'genius, speaking Cockney', and Henry James saw it as 'English Balzac'. However, in 1907. interest to the critics to. begins to subside. The eclipse his literary fame, apparently, due to conservative views, and great-K, as well as the accessibility of his works modernists believed that K. of those themes and aesthetic principles which they profess.
Since the early 40-ies. creativity to. reinterpreted criticism. In 1943, after mc. Eliot published with 'Feyber End Feyber' collection of poems, K., interest in the writer revives. In a lengthy essay, anticipating poems K., Elliott claims that 'by masterovitosti K. exceeds the classics ... Among his poems there is not one in which he failed to complete the task '. 'K. considered to be the author of the popular and entertaining, says Eliot, - for the simple reason that his works are always popular and entertaining '. According to Eliot, the main advantage of K. was his ability to 'get people to understand'. Indian critic Niradu K. Choudhury believes that the author of 'Kim' not create 'not only the best novel about India in English, but also one of the best English novels in general'. The biographies K. 'Mysterious Travel Rudyard Kipling
: his books and life' (1977) English writer and critic Angus Wilson wrote: "The passionate interest in. to the people, their language, business and concerns at the heart of the magical charm of all his works'.