Per Lagerkvist (Lagerkvist Par)( Swedish novelist, poet and playwright, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1951)
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Biography Per Lagerkvist (Lagerkvist Par)
May 23, 1891, Mr.. - July 11, 1974
Swedish novelist, poet and playwright Per Fabian Lagerkvist was born in a small town in southern Sweden Veksa. He was the youngest of seven children Johanna (Blood) and Anders Lagerkvist Johan Lagerkvist. His father first worked on the farm, and later became a lineman on the railroad. As a schoolboy, Per read 'The Origin of Species' Charles Darwin and other works that have shaped his views, very different from the conservative views of his Lutheran family. After leaving school in 1910. he spent two years studying art and literature at Uppsala University.
A literary debut. took place in 1912, when he published several poems and impassioned story 'People' ( 'Manniskor'). In 1913, Mr.. writer goes to Paris, where a great influence on him has modern art, particularly admired the L. audacious energy of Fauvism and intellectual ordering Cubists. In the same year he published the essay 'The Art of words and art' ( 'Ordkonst och bildkonst'), which rejected naturalism in opposition to him Scandinavian and Greek epic. This critical essay was the first work, . which drew attention to the LA, . and soon he implemented their own theories in a collection of poetry and prose 'Motives' ( 'Motiv'), . which was released in 1914, . as well as in a collection of short stories 'Iron and people' ( 'Jam och manniskor' 1915).,
. In 1916, Mr.
. L. gained recognition by publishing a collection of poetry 'Tosca' ( 'Angest'), which is considered the first expressionist work of Swedish. Vivid imagery of this book, its ragged style reflect the interests of L. to Fauvism and Cubism. In 'Tosca' to express the pain and despair caused by the disasters of World War. American poet and critic Kenneth Rexroth wrote in 'American poetic Revue', that 'Tosca' speaks not only about the loss of political illusions, but also the psychic duality of the writer.
Almost all of the First World War L. lived in neutral Denmark. At this time he has written for theater. His first published play 'The Last Man' ( 'Den sista manniskan', 1917) depicts the profound suffering of the last remaining person on the earth, and continues the theme of despair caused by the war. In an essay from the collection of 'theater' ( 'Teater', 1918) A. opposed naturalistic drama, and admires the late symbolic plays of August Strindberg. It is the influence of Strindberg explains the connection between the dramatic works of L. and German expressionism.
In 1919, working theater critic in the Stockholm newspaper "Svenska Dagbladet '(' Svenska Dagbladet '), L. published poetry collection 'Chaos' ( 'Kaos') and play 'secret of Heaven' ( 'Himlens hemlighet'), . the most successful of his early plays, . expressing deep pessimism L., . his conviction, . that if life seems to be the supreme value of humanity, . is a consequence of complete indifference to God,
. The same writer develops the theme in the novel 'The Eternal Smile' ( 'Det eviga leendet', 1920). In this novel the characters talk to God, asking Him why He created them. God replied that he did not have a specific purpose, but he did everything the best. This response leaves people confused. They did not find the spiritual support they need. And it causes them to seek spiritual support than divine power, but within himself.
In the 20-ies. L. traveled extensively, visiting France and Italy, and his pessimism in these years begins to soften, and the style becomes more specific and less pretentious. Poetry of this period - collections 'Path happy man' ( 'Den lyckliges vag', 1921) and 'Songs of the heart' ( 'Hjartats sanger'.
. 1926) - full of simplicity and optimism, which are absent in his earlier works.
. In addition to a collection of short stories 'evil saga' ( 'Onda sagor', 1924), A
. written two books, which many critics considered it the most personal works of LA: 'Guest of reality' ( 'Cast hos verkligheten', 1925) and 'Conquered life' ( 'Det besegrade livet'.
1927). In the book 'Guest reality' tells about the childhood of the writer, about how his early years in pursuing the idea of death. 'Conquered life' - a collection of philosophical reflection, which sets out the views of the author's own work and the world. According to the American critic Alrika Gustafson, these works argue faith L. in 'the unbreakable spirit of man' and 'the ultimate victory of good over evil'. In addition, both books show a high narrative technique of LA, who writes in simple language, clear and remarkably focused.
By drama works L. also include the play "The man who lived a life '(' Han som fick leva from sitt liv. '1928). This and other pieces written in the 30-ies. Is a greater likelihood, using everyday language.
As the 30-ies. growing threat of fascism, creative L. became more humanistic in spirit, the writer emphasized the need to fight evil. Although L. announced his humanistic program in poetic collection 'Campfire' ( 'Vid lagerelden', 1932) and in the play 'King' ( 'Konungen', 1932), the most severe sentence he handed down the tyranny of 'executioner' ( 'Bodeln'). This story, written in 1933. and processed in the play of the same name in 1934, based on a comparison of the Middle Ages and our time, confirming the well-known idea of the persistence of evil. Political and social problems arising in the pre-war Europe, continue to dominate the work of L. during the 30-ies. In the drama 'The man without a soul' ( 'Mannen utan sjal' 1936) the author shows how to reborn, having fallen in love, a political terrorist, who served as the evil, and begins to serve as a good. In 'victory in the darkness' ( 'Seger i morker'.
1939) derived two twin brother, one - politician, a Democrat, the other - corrupt demagogue. Germany invaded Denmark and Norway inspired many poems L. from the collection of 'Poetry and the battle' ( 'Sang och strid'.
1940), published in the annual election of the writer as a member of the Swedish Academy. L. continues to write poems and plays, . but the most significant work of this period is an allegorical novel 'Dwarf' ( 'Dvargen', . 1944) - story of the evil dwarf, . who lived during the Italian Renaissance, . which, . essentially, . contains sharp criticism of fascism, . well as human greed, . hypocrisy and malice,
. In the drama 'Let people live' [ 'Lat manniskan leva', 1949) before us are the fate of those who are victims of intolerance, there are also fictional characters and historical figures, including Socrates, Jesus, Joan of Arc.
. Roman 'Barabbas' ( 'Barabbas') was published in 1950, Mr.
. and immediately attracted the attention of critics and writers, including Andre Gide, who called this novel 'remarkable book'. Telling the story of cruel robber, who, unlike Christ, was released from the crucifixion, the writer says about the man trying to find God, the need to have faith. Analyzing the novel 'Barabbas' in 'Atlantic Monthly' ( 'Atlantic Monthly'), Charles Rollo called it 'a true masterpiece'. Many critics also agreed on the fact that never before has the Gospel story was told with such authenticity and spiritual strength. Translated in 9 languages, 'Barabbas' has found a wide response from critics and is the most popular book writer. In 1952, Mr.. on this novel was filmed.
In 1951, Mr.. L. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the artistic power and absolute independence of mind of the writer, who tried in his work to find answers to eternal questions confronting mankind'. Member of the Swedish Academy Anders Esterling said that 'A. belongs to those writers who boldly and openly appealed to the most pressing issues of humanity, the fundamental problems of our existence '. L., shy and reserved man, from the acceptance speech refused. Instead, after a few words of gratitude for the award, he read an excerpt from the book 'The Myth of humanity' ( 'Myten on manniskorna'), written 30 years before and unpublished.
In subsequent years, L. continued to work productively, finished ninth collection of poems 'Evening Land' ( 'Aftonland', . 1953), . has written five novels: 'Sybil' ( 'Sibyllan', . 1956), . 'Death of Ahasuerus' ( 'Ahasverus dod' 1960), . 'Pilgrim at sea' ( 'Pilgrim pa havet', . 1962), . 'Holy Land' ( 'Det heliga landet', . 1964) and 'Mariamna' ( 'Mariamne', . 1967),
. All these novels are inextricably linked, they raised the theme of love, which is solved in the spirit of contrasting symbols.
Being a very reserved man, L. separating personal life from professional. In 1918, Mr.. He married Karen Dagmar Johanna Serenson. In 1925, Mr.. They divorced, and in the same year he married the writer Helene Hallberg, the widow of Swedish artist Yesta Sandels. L. died July 11, 1974, Mr.. from paralysis in the Stockholm hospital at the age of 83 years.
'The feeling of alienation - the main theme of the literature of XX century., And in this sense, L. close to such writers as Franz Kafka and Albert Camus - wrote in 1971. Swedish critic Gunkel Malm-Strц╦m. - L. of those who struggle against the dehumanization of mankind led to the search for the hidden God, the solution of the metaphysical mysteries of life '.