Pontoppidan (Pontoppidan), Henrik( Danish novelist)
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Biography Pontoppidan (Pontoppidan), Henrik
July 24, 1857, Mr.. - August 21, 1943
Danish novelist Henrik Pontoppidan was born in Fredericia in Jutland peninsula and was the fourth child of sixteen children in the family Dines Pontoppidan and his wife, nee Mary Oksenbel. The father of the writer, who comes from an old family of Danish scholars and priests, was a follower of H.F.S. Grundtvig, a radical theologian, who linked the idea with the Danish Lutheran nationalism. Respecting his father, Henrik nonetheless more like mother. Women formed, . well-read, . she believed, . that Denmark, . become of the autocratic state with class prejudices as a democratic country, . behaved hypocritically towards the peasants, . which enfranchised, . but remained poor,
. This point of view the writer subsequently expressed in many of his books.
When Henrik was six years old whose parents moved to the central part of Jutland, in g. Randers, who a year later was briefly captured and devastated by the Prussian and Austrian troops. This event made the boy so hard the impression that, when South Jutland, annexed and attached to the Schleswig-Holstein, in 1920,. was returned to Denmark, n. wrote about a patriotic poem, one of many, which is reflected experiences of childhood trauma.
Although Pontoppidan and did not need, but they lived rather modestly. Life in the Lutheran church acted on the future of the writer's depressing: irritated him and defeatist attitudes of the middle strata of Danish society during the Prussian invasion, . their open hostility to the peasantry, . He was critical of and for the landed gentry and the emerging capitalist class,
. In an effort to contribute to the formation of contemporary democratic Denmark, P. decides to become an engineer and after graduating from high school goes to the Copenhagen Polytechnic Institute.
Having moved to Copenhagen, P. decisively broke with its provincial environment. He visited museums and art galleries, . attends lectures two most popular in the capital of speakers: Pastor Frimodta, . frightening his listeners zhutkovatykh descriptions of hell, . and Georg Brandes, . leading critic and historian, . who gave the young man of great influence,
. Brandeis urged Danes to catch up with more modern, industrialized countries of Western Europe, in every way, called for the development in the spirit of naturalism of Emile Zola, which focuses on current social issues. Together with Hans Christian Andersen Brandes was at the forefront of the Danish literary revival. Brandes, with whom P. met in 1884, was the prototype of Emmanuel, the hero of one of the most important works of the writer - the trilogy 'Promised Land' ( "Det Forjoettede Land", 1891 ... 1895).
The first years of life in Copenhagen P. closely following the parliamentary debate between conservatives who represented the interests of the nobility and the big bourgeoisie, and the opposition, who want a more free and democratic society. Future writer's sympathies were wholly with the latter, which eventually was reflected in his work.
In 1877, when P. age 20, he went to Switzerland, first fell in love and wrote several essays.
It was at this time P. and decided to become a writer. In 1879, Mr.. He leaves the Polytechnic Institute and became a teacher in a peasant school in Frersleve, which was opened by his brother, Morten. 'I was most interested in the lives of the poor - wrote P. subsequently. - Most of all inequality '.
Working in the school, he read a lot, in t. h. philosophical works of Soren Kierkegaard, Harald Heffdinga and Friedrich Nietzsche, as well as the novels of Dostoevsky and other Russian, French, German writers. Teaching Career P. ended in 1882, when his brother was imprisoned for political activities, and school was closed.
In the summer of 1880. P. served in the army in building the army, and in 1881. took his literary debut: the weekly 'at home and abroad' ( "Udeog Hjemme") was published his story "End of life '(" Et Endeligt "). In the same year and released a collection of his short stories 'hamstrung' ( "Stoe kkede Vinger"), selectively printed in periodicals.
In December 1881. P. married Mette Marie Hansen, a young peasant girl, whom he met when he taught in rural school. They had two children. Before 1884. family lived in the countryside, where P. wrote stories, novels and essays of rural life, and after the trip to Germany and Italy moved to Copenhagen. Here P. acquainted with Brandes and becomes an active participant in the intellectual and cultural life of the capital.
V1883 g. writer conceives a great novel about the religious rivalry between the followers of Grundtvig and evangelists, and from 1891 to 1895. publish the trilogy 'Promised Land', which differs a naturalistic description of the reconciling life of peasants and deep penetration into their psychology.
. The hero of the novel, . Emmanuel, . educated priest, . who marries a peasant girl, . cultivate, . lived closed, . is, . like the author, . supporter of constitutional government and a champion of equality, . but all his efforts to reconcile the higher and lower strata of society ends in failure, . and life in the end lose all meaning for,
. 'Promised Land' - is not only a story about lost illusions, but also a broad panorama of religious, political and social life in Denmark mid-nineteenth century. At the same time in the trilogy, there is some frustration felt by the P. Brandes in his idol and his philosophy.
In 1887, Mr.. the writer's wife was leaving from Copenhagen and returns to the village to parents. In 1892, Mr.. P. divorced his first wife and married Antoinette Kofud. Together they lived until her death in 1928, their marriage was childless.
The next major piece of the writer was eight-novel 'Lucky Per' ( "Lykke-Per"), coming out from 1893 to 1904. In contrast to the idealist Emmanuel of 'Promised Land' young provincial engineer Per, the protagonist of this novel - a true realist, a man without illusions. Like the author, Per grew up in a family of rural pastor, he studied in Copenhagen, has developed a plan to build in Jutland free port like Hamburg, became engaged to the daughter of a wealthy Jewish financier. He wrote a book on the Jutland channels, . travels a lot, . promoting your project, . but, . unable to overcome his peasant nature and religious education, . he finally throws his project to build a port, . parted with the bride and returned to Jutland, . to lead the life, . from which initially tried to escape,
. Critics highly praised the novel 'Lucky Per' for the great skill with which the author managed to portray the man at the crucial moment in his life loses courage and composure, and expose the problems of the Danish society of the second half of XIX century.
. The last of the three major works of P
. is a five-volume novel-chronicle 'the kingdom of the dead' ( "De Dodes Rige", 1912 ... 1916). Unlike the first two novels in the third attention is drawn to the absence of the protagonist, there are many characters, given the broad social panorama. In the center of the novel - a radical politician who tries to 'wake up people, who resides in hibernation'. In 'the kingdom of the dead', was written before the First World War and in its first years, there is intolerance of the Danish society and at the same time, the patriotism of the author. In a hurry to finish the novel-chronicle, P. said: 'I'm not a writer, but loyal soldier. "
In 1917, Mr.. P. with Karl Gjellerup was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the truthful description of the modern life of Denmark'. Because of the war, no medal ceremony was held, and P. the Nobel lecture is not performed. In the article about the Swedish Nobel laureate critic Sven SцTderman noticed that the AP, 'is undoubtedly the best of contemporary Danish novelists'. 'All of his works - he wrote SцTderman, - a struggle against the treacherous and deceptive illusions, against the false authority, romanticism, absolute faith in the beautiful words, against the moral cowardice'.
P. continued to write and over the next 20 years. The most memorable piece of this period was the autobiographical saga, . consisting of 5 books: 'The years of adolescence' ( "Drengeaar", . 1933), . 'Change Skin' ( 'Namskifte ", . 1936), . 'Inheritance and duty' ( "Arvog Goeld", . 1938), . 'Family Life' ( "Familieliv", . 1940), . 'On the way to himself' ( "Undervejs til mig selv", . 1943).,
. B age at H
. had thick gray hair and beard, serious, deep-set gray eyes. Since 1910. He lived almost entirely in the suburbs of Copenhagen, where he died in 1943
Although P. never been particularly popular among English-speaking readers, most of the critics of the opinion that this is one of the best Danish writers. As the Danish literary historian William Anderson, 'modern Denmark is easily recognized by his books'. 'As an artist he is secondary, - noticed Oscar Gaysmar - but at a crucial moment in history, he lived the fate of his people, subtly felt what was happening and wrote about his experiences in a clear, polished Danish'. American writer and journalist George Strendvold called P. 'one of the greatest realists, and one of the most insightful novelists of his country, he - observation bytopisatel ... He is angry ... but the style is not affected, he wrote a completely impartial manner '. In 1927, Mr.. Thomas Mann wrote that P. 'inborn epic poet ... who managed in this bustling world save epic narrative '. 'With disarming and charming severity, which was the secret of art - has continued to Thomas Mann - he passes a sentence of time and, like a true poet, pointed the way to a higher justice'. Much later, . in 1980, . American scholar of Danish origin Sven Rossel said: 'None of the Danish writer does not depict the time, . their problems and lives of their contemporaries so accurately, . complete, and with such artistic perfection, . as P. '.,