Romain Rolland( French novelist and journalist, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1915)
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Biography Romain Rolland
January 29, 1866, Mr.. - December 30, 1944
Romain Rolland, French novelist and essayist, was born in wealthy bourgeois family in Klamsi, a small town in the south of France, where he spent his childhood. His father, Emil, was a lawyer, respected in the city of man, and his mother, nee Marie Antoinette Kuro - a devout, closed the woman at the request of that in 1880. family moved to Paris, the son could get a good education.
From an early age when his mother taught him to play the piano, Romain loved music, especially works by Beethoven. Later, as a student of the Lyceum of Louis the Great, he is as much loved works of Wagner. In 1886. young man goes to the very prestigious Ecole normal syuperer, where he studied history, ready to become a university scholar, so why would his mother, and in 1889. receive a diploma teacher.
From 1889 to 1891. P. goes on scholarship in Rome, . where he studied history at the Ecole Franцїaise, . but eventually lose interest in research and under the influence of historical plays of Shakespeare begins to write a series of historical dramas, . based on the events and personalities of the Italian Renaissance,
. In Rome, the future writer acquainted with Malvidoy von Meyzenbug, a German, who was a friend and confidant of celebrities such XIX century. As Lajos Kossuth, Giuseppe Mazzini, Friedrich Nietzsche and Richard Wagner. Her idealistic philosophy and interest in German Romanticism greatly affected the mindset of R.
Back in 1891. Paris, P. continues to write plays and conduct research. In October 1892. He married Clotilde Breal, daughter of the famous philologist. In the same year the couple returned to Rome, where P. begins work on a dissertation on the art of opera to Jean-Baptiste Lully and Alessandro Scarlatti. In 1893, Mr.. R. newly arrived in Paris, is engaged in teaching and research, as well as literature. Two years later, in a solemn ceremony he was defending the first thesis at the Sorbonne in the field of music, after which the department receives musicology, especially for his establishment.
During the next 17 years, P. combines skills in literature with lectures on music and fine arts at the Sorbonne, as well as in two other schools: the School of Social Research and the Ecole normal syuperer. At the same time, he met with Charles Peguy, poet and a Catholic, in whose magazine 'The two-week exercise books' ( "Cahiers de la Quinzaine") P. printing his first works.
Since P. most interested in the history of culture, particularly its crucial, or as he called them 'heroic' period, he began to write than individual works, and the whole cycle, which had not always brought to the end. The first cycle of plays, . dedicated to the Italian Renaissance, . remained only in outline and was not printed, . and the second - 'The tragedies of faith' ( "Les Tragedies de la foi") - comprised of three pieces: 'St. Louis' ( "Saint Louis", . 1897), . 'Aert' ( "Aert", . 1898) and 'Triumph of mind' ( "Le Triomphe de la raison", . 1899),
. B subsequent cycles of the writer included not only play, but biographies and novels.
Three historical plays that are included in the 'Tragedy of faith', combines art and social criticism, of P. sought to instill in their fellow citizens faith, courage and hope, which, in the opinion of the writer, so lacking in France at the time. Nevertheless, 'Tragedy of faith' little change in the French theater, where at that time flourished bourgeois melodrama. This has prompted P. the idea of folk theater, like Leo Tolstoy, whom he admired and with whom a correspondence, R. believed that the public should be educated on the heroic examples. Interested in becoming Maurice Potteshe 'People's Theater', P. in 1903. in 'two-week exercise books' published a manifesto calling counteract pessimism and materialism of the 80-ies. XIX century. and subsequently released a book - 'The People's Theater' ( "Le Theatre du peuple", 1918), where the writer speaks of the need to create new plays, in which lay the basis to historical events, inspiring the audience.
P. created a cycle of 9 ... 12 plays on the French Revolution, in the spirit of historical chronicles of Shakespeare. Three such pieces included in the cycle 'Theater of the revolution' ( "Theatre de la Revolution", 1909), which ended 30 years later, the drama 'Robespierre' ( "Robespierre", 1939). These didactic, full of pathos of the play on political themes in a time when the pre-eminent literary movement was naturalism go unnoticed; success come to them later - in Germany after the First World War, and in France - in the 30-ies.
. conceived as a series of biographies of famous people, life and activity which could be an example for the reader. His biographer, William Thomas Starr, believes that P. wrote 'Life of Beethoven' ( "Vie de Beethoven", 1903), the first and most udavshuyusya biography series, "in gratitude for the source of inspiration in moments of despair and hopelessness'. Despair is probably largely was due to divorce the writer with his wife in 1901. After graduating in 1905. biography of Michelangelo, P. refuses to continue the biographical series, since coming to the conclusion that the truth about the difficult fate of great men is hardly inspiring effect on the reader. However, P. remained true biography genre, and later, when writing a biography of Handel (1910). Tolstoy (1911), Gandhi (1924), Ramakrishna (1929), Vivekananda (1930), Peggy (1944).
. "Jean-Christophe '(" Jean-Christophe "), the ten-novel coming out from 1904 to 1912, is the life story of a brilliant musician, inspired by the Beethoven, as well as a wide panorama of European life in the first decade of XX
. Separate parts of the novel published in the 'two-week exercise books' Peguy and immediately received worldwide fame and brought the R. international recognition, after which the writer leaves the Sorbonne (1912) and to devote himself to literature. Austrian writer Stefan Zweig argued that 'Jean-Christophe' - is the result of frustration P. in the biographical genre: 'As history has denied him in the form of' consolation ', he turned to art ...'
Nobel Prize for Literature 1915. R. was mainly due to 'Jean-Christophe'. As such, the prize was awarded to the writer only in 1916. - Partly because of the scandal caused by the fact that P., settled shortly before the First World War in Switzerland, published in 1915. passionate anti-war article entitled 'above the fray' ( "Audessus de la melee"), which fought for freedom and internationalism, and against injustice and the horrors of war, and against the ex-pacifists, who during the war became ardent nationalists. R. received the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the high idealism of the literary works of compassion and love of truth, which he describes various human Valais'. Because of the war, the traditional awards ceremony may be held, and P. the Nobel lecture did not speak.
Political views R. remain controversial, especially in relation to the Soviet Union, which he supported in every way, though criticized for mistakes. Generally, in the years between the world wars, the writer more time and effort pays politics and public life and at the same time still very much wrote: this musicological articles, biographies, plays, diaries, memoirs, letters, essays, novels. In the 20-ies. He is fond of Indian religious and political thought, in 1931. to him in Switzerland comes Gandhi, a biography which P. written in 1924. The main artistic work of this period becomes the sixth cycle of the writer's 'Bewitched soul' ( "L'Ame enchantee", 1925 ... 1933), seven-novel, which describes the painful struggle of women for the realization of their spiritual possibilities. Defending the right to self-employment, to full-fledged civil existence, Annette Riviere, the heroine of the novel, is released from the illusions.
In 1934, Mr.. R. married Mary Kudashevoj, and four years later he returned from Switzerland to France. During the Second World War, the writer left his position 'above the fray' and took place in the forefront of the struggle against Nazism. December 30, 1944, Mr.. R. died of tuberculosis, who suffered from childhood. His letter, read aloud at the Sorbonne, in which the writer expresses condolences to the families of men of science and art, killed by the Nazis, was written three weeks before his death, December 9.
. Personality P., his ideas may have more impact on his contemporaries than his book
. His friend Marie Dormoy wrote: 'I admire Romain Rolland. I also admire the 'Jean-Christophe', but man I probably like it more than the author ... He was a guide, a beacon showing the way to all those who hesitated, who lacked the strength to go your way alone '. Some critics have underestimated the literary achievements P., in books which individual word is sometimes far less important than common sense, the basic idea, there is also the view that 'Jean-Christophe', conceived by P. a symphony, vague and formless. Books about the late R. English novelist and critic E.M. Forster wrote that P. 'not fulfilled the hopes that he gave in his youth'. The most balanced assessment of creativity P. belongs to his biographer, Starr, who wrote that, 'except for' Jean-Christophe ', P. will be remembered not as a writer, but as one of the most active and vigorous defenders of human dignity and freedom, as a passionate fighter for a more just and humane social order '. Starr also argued that, 'perhaps not yet the hour has come to evaluate P. deservedly ... Only time can separate the genius from the transitory, short-lived '.