Jean-Paul Sartre (Sartre Jean-Paul)( French philosopher, novelist and playwright, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1964)
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Biography Jean-Paul Sartre (Sartre Jean-Paul)
June 21, 1905, Mr.. - April 15, 1980
. Jean Paul Sartre Aimard, . French philosopher, . novelist and playwright, . Born in Paris and was the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, . marine engineer, . and his wife, . nee Anne-Marie Schweitzer, . came from a family known Alsatian scholars, . cousin of Albert Schweitzer,
. When the boy's father died in 1906. of dengue fever, his mother took away Jean Paul first in Meudon near Paris, where her parents lived, and then, in 1911, in Paris, where the boy's grandfather, Charles Schweitzer, professor, Philologist and writer, created the Institute of Modern Language. Schweitzer, overbearing nature and Calvinist beliefs which had a marked effect on the S., thought her grandson gifted boy, and, taking from the school, invited him to private tutors. These years. spends in solitude, read a lot and was really worried when his mother, once again came out in 1917. married, takes it with him in La Rochelle, western France.
Back in 1920,. in Paris,. studying at the Lycц╘e Henri IV and start typing in the capital periodicals. In 1924, Mr.. he entered the Ecole normal syuperer, where he studied philosophy and is preparing to pass exams to obtain the diploma entitling teaching in high school or university. In 1928, Mr.. exams he failed, but a year later, in 1929, with. received the diploma of the first degree, as Simone de Beauvoir, who became in time a prominent figure in French literature and a close friend and colleague S.
After military service in the meteorological forces from. from 1931 to 1936. teaches philosophy at the lycц╘e in Le Havre, and in 1933 ... 1934. probation in Germany, working at the Institute of France in Berlin, where he studied the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger's ontology, exerted on C. great influence. Back in 1937. France, he engaged in Paris in teaching.
In the late 30-ies. S. wrote his first major works in t.ch. Four philosophical work about the nature of phenomena and the work of consciousness. Even as a teacher in Le Havre, C. wrote 'Nausea' ( 'La Nausee), his first and most successful novel, published in 1938. At the same time in the 'New French Revue' ( 'Nouvelle Revue Francaise') is printed novel C. 'The Wall' ( 'Le Mur'). Both works are in France, book of the year.
'Nausea' is a diary of Antoine Rokentena, which is working on a biography of the XVIII century. Penetrates the absurdity of existence. Unable to find faith, to influence the surrounding reality, Rokenten experiencing nausea, in the final of the hero comes to the conclusion that if he wants to make his existence meaningful, it must write a novel. Writer's work, creativity - the only thing that has, in the opinion of the then MS, at least some sense.
When the Second World War, with. because of poor eyesight exempted from conscription, and again served in the meteorological package, is taken prisoner in a concentration camp for prisoners of war under Trier, in 1941. returns to Paris, where he continued to teach and write. During this period, politics plays in his life more important than in the 30-ies. When, except for criticism of the bourgeois routine in the novel 'Nausea', the writer's main interests were philosophy, psychology and literature. Although the hostilities of the resistance movement with. did not participate, he founded the Society for Promotion of the resistance movement, where he met with Albert Camus, who introduced him to the newspaper 'Comb' ( 'Combat'). Main products with. this time the play was 'Flies' ( 'Les Mouches', 1943), 'behind the locked door' ( 'Huis clos', 1944) and volume philosophical work 'Being and Nothingness' ( 'L'Etre et le neant', 1943) whose success has allowed the writer in 1944. withdraw from the Lyceum of Condorcet, where he teaches at this time.
. Play 'Fly' is the processing of the Greek myth of Orestes to the discussion on existentialism, the doctrine that the world there is no objective morality, and that people therefore have a right to free choice, on the 'being for itself'
. Orestes refuses to repent to Zeus for the murder of his mother Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus - the murderers of his father Agamemnon. As a result of 'free choice', the responsibility for his act, Orestes relieve his city of Erinyes. When German authorities learned that a play with. is in fact a passionate call to freedom, they have banned its production.
. The play 'behind the locked door' is a conversation of three characters in the underworld, the meaning of this conversation boils down to, . what, . the language of existentialism, . existence precedes essence, . that person's character is formed through the commission of certain acts: a man-hero in essence be a coward, . if decisive, . 'existential' moment smalodushnichaet,
. Most people believed S., perceive themselves such what they perceive the surrounding. As one of the characters: 'Hell - is other people'.
The main philosophical work with. 'Being and Nothingness', which became the bible for young French intellectuals, C. carries the idea that consciousness as such, no, simply because there is no consciousness, 'pure consciousness', there is only awareness of the outside world, things around us. People are responsible for their actions only to themselves, because every action has a certain value - regardless of whether conscious of this people report or not.
By the end of the Second World War. becomes the acknowledged leader of the existentialists who were going to 'yes Cafe Fleur' near the Place Saint-Germain-des-Prц╘s on the left bank of the Seine, a cafe, which has become a place of pilgrimage of French and foreign tourists. The popularity of existentialism due to the fact that this philosophy has attached great importance to human freedom and was associated with the resistance. Cooperation among different sectors of French society in wartime, . their opposition to the common enemy gives hope, . that existentialism, . philosophy of, . bring together intellectuals, . a new, . revolutionary French culture.,
. The next ten years
. works particularly fruitful. In addition to reviews and critical articles, . He wrote the pole pieces, . including better, . many believe, . play 'Dirty hands' ( 'Les Mains Sales', . 1948) - a dramatic study of painful compromise, . necessary in political activity, . - And the unfinished tetralogy 'Freedom Road' ( 'Les Chemins de la liberte', . 1945 ... 1949), . which shows, . existential freedom as understood by different people, . some of them take responsibility for what he, . and others - no,
. During these years, with. wrote the study's life and work of Charles Baudelaire (1947) and Jean Genet (1952) - Experience of application of existentialism to the biographical genre, an attempt to analyze the individual using the ontological categories of the book 'Being and Nothing'.
With Passion. Marxism became apparent as early as 1944, when he founded and headed the monthly literary magazine 'New Times' ( 'Les Temps Modernes'), where the pressing social and literary issues were covered from the standpoint of Marxism. At the beginning of the 50-ies., Ceasing to be interested in literature, theater, issues of ethics and individual consciousness, with. moving towards a more open propaganda of Marxism, the solution of pressing social problems. Having broken in 1952. with Camus, had been criticized by extremist ideologies, in defense of moderation, liberalism and democracy with. condemned the refusal of violence and declared that any attempt to avoid revolution is a betrayal of humanity.
In the 'words' ( 'Les Mots', 1964), a candid autobiographical novel about the first ten years of his life, C. calls the spiritual values of his grandfather 'bourgeois', rejects the literature that meets the aesthetic criteria, and proclaims the need for political and literary 'engagement'. The main product of this time was a philosophical work 'Critique of dialectical reason' ( 'Critique de la raison dialectique', 1960), which attempts to reconcile Marxism and existentialism. S. believed that with the help of 'individual freedom' can be freed from the prejudices of Marxism, and with the help of the Marxist theory - to turn from the philosophy of existentialism, the philosophy of the individual in society.
With. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1964. 'for the rich ideas, infused with the spirit of freedom and the search for truth creativity that has had a tremendous influence on our time'. Referring to the fact that he 'does not want it turned into a social institution', and fearing that the glory of the Nobel laureate only hinder his radical political activities,. from premiums declined.
During the past 20 years of living with. more engaged in politics than literature or philosophy. From the religious reformer's zeal, he sought to restore 'good name' of socialism.
With. never been a member of the Communist Party, but maintained a pro-Soviet sentiment before the events of 1956. Hungary in the following years the writer has traveled, actively opposed the class and national oppression, defended the ultra-right groups. Sincere supporter of Algerian independence, he compared the French colonial policy with Nazi crimes in the play 'Recluse Altona' ( 'Les Sequestres d'Altona', 1960). While strongly condemning the U.S. military intervention in Vietnam, with. became chairman organized by Bertrand Russell's anti-war committee, accused the U.S. of war crimes; strongly supports the Chinese and the Cuban revolution, but later was disappointed in the policies of these countries. S. welcomes students demonstrating in Paris in 1968, but lost hope for revolution in Europe, supporting himself (and calls to the same other intellectuals), the revolutionary transformations in the 'Third World'. In the 70-ies. S. is in complete isolation, it becomes - the first time in 30 years - a bystander place political processes.
In the last years of life with. almost blind because of glaucoma; write he could not and instead gave numerous interviews, discuss political events with friends, listening to music, he often read aloud Simone de Beauvoir. Died with. April 15, 1980
The value of AS, which Heidegger considered a writer rather than a philosopher, and Nabokov, on the contrary, rather a philosopher than a writer, yet to appreciate. Many critics believe that the individualistic morality of the early C. does not fit with their active social position in the 60-ies. However, the French philosopher-structuralist Louis Althusser after the death of P. said: 'He was our Jean-Jacques Rousseau'. In his obituary, printed in the newspaper 'Le Monde', stated that 'no French intellectual of the XX century., No Nobel Prize has not had such a profound, lasting and comprehensive influence, as C.'.