John Ernst Steinbeck( American writer, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1962)
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Biography John Ernst Steinbeck
February 17, 1902, Mr.. - December 20, 1968
. American writer John Ernst Steinbeck was born in Salinas, . California, . and was the only son and third of four children in the family of Olive (Hamilton) Steinbeck, . schoolteacher, . and John Ernst Steinbeck, . Manager, . then the owner of flour mills, . and later treasurer of Monterey County,
. Interest in the literature in the future writer awoke under the influence of parents. Salinas Valley in framing its picturesque hills and the coastal plateau memorable young SA, which was subsequently sealed their places in many of his works.
. In high school, Salinas, John is well studied in subjects such as English language, literature and biology, published a school newspaper
. After high school in 1919, he enrolled at Stanford University in the department of journalism, but majors poorly studied, and a year later was forced to withdraw from the University. Over the next two years the young man changed a lot of specialties, . studied biology at the Naval Research Station in Pacific Grove and, . save money for the return journey, . returned to Stanford, . where he studied briefly, . printing the poems and stories in the university magazine 'Spectator' ( 'Spectator'),
. University degree aspiring novelist who never received.
Hire workers on a cargo ship, P. sea gets to New York, . where a short time working in the newspaper 'New York American' ( 'New York American'), . unsuccessfully trying 'to attach' somewhere their stories, . then returns to California, . where a construction worker, . journalist, . sailor and collector of fruit and also wrote his first novel 'The Golden Bowl' ( 'Cup of Gold', . 1929) - a romantic story about the English pirate in the XVII,
. Henry Morgan, whose greed prevents him find happiness. Later, the author called his first book 'immature thing'. 'I grew out of it, - S. wrote - and it breaks me. "
The following year. marries Carol Henning and lives in Pacific Grove in the cottage, which pays rent for his father. In Pacific Grove with. met with biologist Edward O. Ricketts, whose views on the relationship of all life emerged subsequently anticipated ecological theory and profoundly influenced the formation of the writer's views. In the novel 'unknown god' ( 'To a God Unknown', 1933) felt the idea Ricketts, the theory of archetypes Jung borrowed C. by Evelyn Reynolds Ott, a former student of Jung, as well as in the mythologist Joseph Campbell. Despite the importance of the novel 'unknown god' for the formation of C. as a prose writer, he was confusing and difficult to read and succeed neither critics nor the general public did not.
Next novel with. 'Quarter Tortilla Flat' ( 'Tortilla Flat', 1935) became a bestseller. This is the first product of the writer, has a precise geographic address - the coast of California, the novel shows a group of colorful characters - bessrebrenikov, drunkards and philosophers living in the hills above the Monterey Bay. Consisting of individual episodes, the novel, the author's intention, was associated with the legends of King Arthur, a writer who loved since childhood, and, like the novel 'The Golden Bowl', show the inhumane impact of materialism. Turning to the pressing social problems. in 1936. wrote the novel 'I lost the battle' ( 'In Dubious Battle'), whose title is a hidden passage from miltonovskogo 'Paradise Lost' ( 'Paradise Lost') and which focuses on the two organizers of the strike fruit pickers. In 1937, Mr.. Since the story goes. 'Of Mice and Men' ( 'Of Mice and Men') - the tragic story of two ordinary workers, George and his feeble-minded friend Lennie who cherish the vain dreams of his own house and piece of land. 'There are more feeling and naturalness than in his earlier books - would write in 1980. biographer of the writer Paul McCarthy. - This story is more realistic and accurate '. American researcher Richard Astro called 'Of Mice and Men' 'pastoral, in which the author defends the common human values, contrasting their greed and power'. In this extremely popular novel, whereby C. becomes a prominent figure in American literature, George C. Kaufman wrote the play, which in 1937. successfully went to Broadway.
Following the collection of short stories 'The Long Valley' ( 'Long Valley', 1938) and the story 'Red Pony' ( 'The Red Pony'), published a separate edition in 1953,. wrote his most famous and important novel - 'The Grapes of Wrath' ( 'The Grapes of Wrath', 1939), the odyssey of a family Dzhoudsov, which during the Great Depression, is embarking on an exhausting journey from Oklahoma to California. Nature, . Social adversities and rapacious greed of large farmers threaten the family Dzhoudsov, . but in the end the heroes are winning novel circumstances (at least in the philosophical sense), . convinced, . that their place in the 'one big heart', . which belongs to the entire human family,
. 'Grapes of Wrath' is rapidly becoming one of the most popular bestsellers, are honored with rave reviews and the Pulitzer Prize 1940. Simultaneously, the novel caused a storm of controversy, there were also those critics who accused the author of communist propaganda, condemned for distorting the truth.
To avoid involvement in the controversy, with. goes with his friend Ricketts in zoological expedition to the Gulf of California, described later in the book 'The Sea of Cortez. Idle record of travel and research '(' Sea of Cortez: A Leisurely Lournal of Travel and Research ', 1941), which explains not only the results of the expedition, but also about the conversation with. and Ricketts on a variety of topics - biological, historical, philosophical. In the same year, 1941. S. divorced his first wife and moved to New York with Gvindolin Kondzher, singer, whom he married two years later and the marriage with whom he had two sons.
During the Second World War. served in the information, as well as a consultant in the department of propaganda. His contribution to the victory put it in such books, . as 'Bombs down' ( 'Bombs Away', . 1942), . kind of handbook for pilots, . and the novel 'Moon has gone' ( 'The Moon Is Down', . 1942), . which describes the occupation of the small town forces of a totalitarian regime (meaning the Nazi invasion of Norway), . and in the same name play on the same topic,
. In 1943, Mr.. the writer becomes a war correspondent of The New York Herald Tribune '(' New York Herald Tribune ') - later reports from London, North Africa, Italy emerged as a separate book' Once upon a time there was a war '(' Once There Was a War ', 1958 )
. In his first post-war novel 'Cannery Row' ( 'Cannery Row'
. 1945) P. depicted a group of vagrants living in the Monterey fish processing plants, throwing a party to his friend, Doku, inspired by the Ricketts. Because this novel is a marked departure from past political, social and philosophical views of the author, some critics were quick to accuse the 'Cannery Row' in the triviality and sentimentality. Allegoric novel 'stray bus' ( 'The Wayward Bus') and story-parable 'The Pearl' ( 'The Pearl') appeared in 1947. and also caused contradictory responses. 'In these books - wrote Richard Astro - S. faith that people can work together to make the world a better place ... seems less applicable to the world he sees around '. In search of inspiration from. and photographer Robert Capa on the instructions 'Herald Tribune' travel to the USSR, resulting in there 'Russian Diary' ( 'Russian Journal', 1948) with photographs of Capa. In the same year in a car accident killed Ricketts and C. divorced his second wife. The following year he met Elaine Scott, in which married in 1950
Play with. 'Light burning' ( 'Burning Bright'), was withdrawn from production in 1950, already after 13 performances, but the script for the film "Viva Zapata!" ( 'Viva Zapata'), delivered in 1952. American director Elia Kazan, as he wrote Astro, 'recalled the best books. 30-ies. '. During these years the writer is working on 'great novel', . as he called the 'East of Eden' ( 'East of Eden', . 1954), . Hamilton family saga, . inspired by the history of the ancestors of the writer's maternal, . a kind of allegory of the modern explanation of the Biblical legend of Cain and Abel,
. American critic Mark Skorer wrote that the novel is different 'latitude, play of imagination', but other critics of his views are not shared.
. Released on the screens in the year of publication 'East of Eden' self-titled film became the sixth adaptation of products with
. Besides, were filmed 'Of Mice and Men', 'Grapes of Wrath' and 'Neighborhood Tortilla Flat'.
Last novel, the writer has become the 'Winter of our discontent' ( 'The Winter of Our Discontent', 1961). Then C. basically wrote journalism and travel sketches. Perhaps the most successful product of the 60-ies. become 'Travel with Charley in search of America' ( 'Travels With Charley in Search of America', 1962) - story about visiting the country with his poodle Charley, in which C. extols the natural beauty of the nation, complaining of rampant synthetic culture.
In 1962. S. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for a realistic and poetic gift, combined with gentle humor and sharp social vision'. Calling From. 'one of the masters of contemporary American literature', . Anders Esterling, . Member of the Swedish Academy, . noted, . that 'the writer has always sympathized with the oppressed, . failures and sufferers; opposes the simple pleasures of life brutal and cynical lust for money '.,
. In his brief acceptance speech with
. talked about the high debt of the writer 'to whom' must point to the failures and human errors and ... extol their greatness of spirit '.
Admirer of President Lyndon B. Johnson, for whom he even wrote the speech, with. played a supporter of the U.S. war in Vietnam, however, I have been there as a journalist, has changed his views. His latest book - transcription into modern language of the medieval novel by Thomas Malory 'Death of Arthur' ( 'Morte d'Arthur'), - work on which C. began in 1957, was published after his death in 1976. called 'Acts of King Arthur and his noble knights' ( 'Acts of King Arthur and His Noble Knights').
With. suffered two strokes in 1961 and 1965., he died in 1968,. in his New York apartment from an extensive myocardial infarction.
After the death of P. his popularity is falling, critics have accused the writer of sentimental, naive, immoderate inclination towards allegory. 'It is impossible to predict the final fate of the reputation S. - wrote Richard Astro, - but it seems that in the literature, it remains primarily as author of great novels about the Great Depression'. According to biographer C., Paul McCarthy, 'On. believes first and foremost a human being, in his patience and creative power '. Agrees with him an American scholar James Gray: "Novels, plays and short stories of the honest artist imbued with the desire to pay our debt to humanity. Different in mood, problems, themes, all of these genres glorify man ... Like no other American writer, C. consistently sought to appreciate human life, pay tribute to him. "