CHURCHILL, Winston( English statesman, historian and biographer, the Nobel Prize for Literature, 1953)
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Biography CHURCHILL, Winston
November 30, 1874, Mr.. - 24 January 1965
Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, English statesman, historian and biographer, was born in Blan-Palace, near Woodstock, in Oxfordshire. He was the eldest son of Janet Jerome, the daughter of an American financier, and Lord Randolph Churchill, a descendant of John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough. Prominent politician, Churchill, Sr. in 1886. broke with the Conservative Party, resigned leader of the House of Commons and Minister for Finance, mistakenly believing that he could dictate his terms to the Parliament. The abrupt end to a political career, his father, wrote the British historian Hugh Trevor-Roper, was an insult that 'Churchill, Jr. has never forgotten nor forgiven. "
After finishing primary school in Ascot and Brighton B. in 1888. enters privileged school Harrow, and then - in the Army Military Academy at Sandhurst, which ends on the twentieth achievement of a total of 130 graduates. In 1895, shortly after the death of his father, H. sent to the Fourth Hussars, but eventually took a leave and went to Cuba (where there is war with Spain), war correspondent of the London 'Daily schedule' ( 'Daily Graphic'). Later, while serving on the northwestern frontier of India (1896 ... 1897), H. wrote reports, which formed the basis for the 'Stories Malakand field units', published in 1898. ( 'The Story of the Malakand Field Force'). In India, Ch. wrote his first and only art 'Savrola, the history of the Revolution in Lauranii' ( 'Savrola, a Tale of the Revolution in Laurania', 1900). In a dual capacity - a soldier and a correspondent of the London 'Morning Post' ( 'Morning Post') - H. participates in the Nile expedition of Lord Kitchener in the Sudan; the experience of this campaign, described them in 'River War. Stories of a new conquest of the Sudan '(' The River War, an Account of the Reconquest of the Sudan ', 1899). In 1899. CH. reserve military service and returned to England to stand for election to Parliament from the Conservative Party. However, he loses the election campaign and once again turns to journalism - going correspondent 'Morning Post' to cover the Boer War. As a result, dizzy African adventure - captivity, imprisonment, escape in a freight car - V. in 1900. returned to England a hero, once again a candidate in parliamentary elections, this time wins in 26 years became a member of Parliament from the Conservative Party. Six years later, in protest against the tariff bills of the Government W. out of the Conservative Party and shall enter into a liberal.
After the victory of the Liberal Party V. became deputy minister for the colonies and held that position until 1908, calling for peace with South Africa. Two years later he moved to the Ministry of Commerce, which advocates such progressive measures as the reduction of working hours, fixing minimum wages, unemployment insurance. In 1908, Mr.. CH. marries Clementine Hozer, from a marriage with whom he had a son and three daughters.
In 1910,. CH. became Minister of Internal Affairs, is undertaking reforms in the penal system, but the women's suffrage continues to have negative. Being in 1911. first lord of the Admiralty, Ch. advocates for increased naval budget in connection with a possible war with Germany. Shortly after the outbreak of World War W. prepared and led a military expedition to the defense of Antwerp. Despite the fact that the city was captured by German troops, Antwerp operation made it possible to save the Belgian army and keep a few important English ports in the La Manche. But the following year H. charged with failure of a large-scale operations against the Dardanelles in Turkey, undertaken with the aim of seizing the Straits and access to the Russian border, and forced to resign.
Again returning to the army, W. involved in the fighting in the Second Grenadier Guards regiment and the rank of colonel commanding a battalion of the Royal Scots Regiment. A year after his return to England (1916) H. appointed minister of armaments in the coalition government of David Lloyd George, which is actively engaged in the production and introduction of new types of weapons - tanks.
After the war, W. was transferred to the Ministry of Defense, which was in charge of demobilization, called for reducing the military budget and at the same time expressed concern over the rise to power in Russia the Bolsheviks.
Second time appointed for the post of Minister of the Colonies (1921), H. provide full support to the Government of Ireland gained independence with. The main concern of the same H. were mandated territory of Great Britain in the Middle East: for his initiative in 1922. Palestine received the status of the Jewish national territory subject to the rights of Arabs, as well as the mandate established the Emirate of Transjordan. However, the intolerance of H. to Turkey on the question of the Dardanelles has split the fragile coalition government. In the new cabinet W. failed.
At this time H. begins work on the book 'The world crisis' ( 'World Crisis', 1923 ... 1929), according to Trevor-Roper, 'the most brilliant military memoirs in history'. At the fee received for the projected four 'global crisis', H. Chartwell acquired mansion. In 1924, Mr.. CH. re-elected to parliament and appointed minister of finance in the government of Stanley Baldwin, the new prime minister from the Conservative Party. For four years in H. in office the government managed to restore the gold standard, which led to economic deflation, rising unemployment and a general strike (1926).
Two years later, at the election of 1929, the Conservatives were defeated, and H. again been out of work. During those 10 years that H. was retired, . He stands opposed to the granting of greater freedom of India, . supported King Edward VIII, . the wish to marry a divorced American woman, . warned the nation about the growing threat from Nazi Germany and wrote four-volume study of his famous ancestor: "Marlborough: His Life and Times' ( 'Maryborough: His Life and Times', . 1933 ... 1938),
. After Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, returning in 1938. from Munich, said that it provided 'the world for a long time', H. responded prophetic warning: "Europe is plunged into darkness'.
When the Second World War, W. newly appointed first lord of the Admiralty, and immediately take steps to combat German submarines, . and six months, . after the resignation of Chamberlain government, . becomes prime minister and defense minister in the coalition government,
. After Britain joined in an unequal struggle with seized almost all of Europe Germanic and Italian troops, H. sees his task was to repel German air attacks, to win over the Americans and support the morale of the nation with the help of hardliners and brilliant eloquence. At this point, he appeals to Britons with now-famous words: 'We shall defend our island at any cost. We shall fight on the coast. We shall fight on the ground. We shall fight on the fields and on the streets. We shall fight in the mountains. We will never give up '.
Huge role in getting the Lend-Lease (March 1941) played a friendship H. with U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt, and when the United States entered the war against Germany, the relationship between heads of states have become even closer. During the war, W. doing everything necessary to strengthen the unity of the Allies; great military strategist, he commanded the British forces in Europe, North Africa and Asia. When the war was drawing to an end, H. strongly recommended that the first Roosevelt and then Harry C. Truman 'meet with Russian as possible to the east', to limit the claims in the Soviet Central Europe. However, the British prime minister ignored warnings.
Although after the victory over Germany V. revered national hero, on election 1945. The Conservative Party was defeated, and became Prime Minister Clement Attlee's Labor. Charles, however, from the political arena did not go, in a speech in Fulton (1946), he entered the political lexicon the term 'Iron Curtain', and in the same year in Zurich, the idea of an United States of Europe, which would include Germany and. From 1948 to 1954. CH. working on a six-volume history of the 'The Second World War' ( 'The Second World War') - a large-scale and at the same time, based on personal experience of the product of historical and memoir genre.
In 1951, Mr.. CH. is returning to politics and becoming prime minister, but four years later forced to resign for health reasons. In 1953, Mr.. CH. received the Nobel Prize for Literature 'mastery of historical and biographical works of nature, as well as for brilliant oratory, with which advocated higher human values'. As noted in his speech, a member of the Swedish Academy P.S. Siverts, 'political and literary achievements W. so large that it can be compared with both Caesar and Cicero with '. Magnificent speech W. far exceed its book. Thirty years later his compatriot William Golding said: 'W. received the Nobel Prize for his passionate philippics - an example of courage and steadfastness ... His poetry has changed the fact of history '. Because participation in an international conference in Bermuda W. unable to attend the awards ceremony. On behalf of the British prime minister's award was given to his wife, who said in a brief speech feedback.
W. engaged not only in politics and literature, he was also a talented amateur painter, a skilled bricklayer. During his long life he received a lot of awards, including the Order of the Garter (1953), Award of Charlemagne (1965), the title of honorary citizen of the USA (1963) and more than twenty honorary degrees from universities in the world. Moving away from public life, V. produces four-volume study of 'History of the English-speaking peoples' ( 'A History of the English-Speaking Peoples', 1956 ... 1958).
W. died in London at the age of 90 and was buried with state honors. His death marked the end of an era in British history.
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