Elytis (Elytis), Odysseas( Greek poet, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1979)
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Biography Elytis (Elytis), Odysseas
genus. November 2, 1911
Odysseas Elytis - nickname of the Greek poet Odysseas Alepudelisa, who was born in Heraklion, Crete. Father E., comes from a family of wealthy landowners from the legendary island of Lesbos in the Aegean Sea, he decided to arrange their own destiny and founded in Crete prosperous soap production. When the boy was 6 years old, the family moved to Athens, where Odysseas finished elementary and secondary school. From 1930 to 1935. future poet studied law at Athens University, but the diploma was not defended.
In the 20 years of age E. interested in poetry, was reading the French poet Paul Eluard, got carried away then just emerging surrealism, with great interest in the last year at the university he attended lectures representative of surrealism Andreas Embirikosa. When E. began writing poetry himself, . he abandoned his well-known in commercial circles, the names and came up with a pseudonym Elytis, . where the root - is Hellas (Greece), . elpida (hope), . Eleftheria (Freedom) and Eleni (Helen, . personification of beauty), . and the suffix denotes citizenship, . Greek origin,
. At this time he met Embirikosom, . became his lifelong friend, . and belongs to the group of writers, . associated with 'Ta Nea grammatical' ( 'New Literary Review'), . magazine, . which published works of poets (including Giorgos Seferis), . that was to form a new generation of Greek literature,
. These writers were opposed kafarevusy - artificially archaic, formal and partly a literary language, created on the basis of classical Greek, preferring liveliness demotic - a living spoken literary language. The first verses E. were published in 'Ta Nea grams ma' in 1935
Although the work of some writers, the Surrealists associated with 'Ta Nea grammatical', evoked ridicule, poetry E. was from the outset adopted a favor, because he managed to link tricks surrealist school (eg, associativity) with a specific mentality of the Greek. Surrealism was the only school for poetry, whose aim was the spiritual health and who opposed the then fashionable in the West rationalistic tendencies'.
. E., being Greek, was not, as he put it, 'national rags', although it was aware that 'there are national characteristics that can enrich the world spirit'
. Greek poet, he continued the literary tradition that had existed for twenty-five centuries. In the early works of E. alien to the mood of despair and sorrow, characteristic of poets such as Seferis and mc. Eliot. His imagery and optimism E. drew from childhood memories. Poems 'Directions' (1939) are saturated with images of light, the sea and the shining sun. 'Sun King' (1943), where the poet also celebrates the sensual world effulgence and youth, brings E. glory of the outstanding lyric poet of his time, the poet of joy and spiritual health. 'It was a poetic world in which embodied the purest form of the Hellenic character' - wrote the poet translator Kimon Frayer. Poetry E. rooted in the depths of ancient tradition, which sought to portray an ideal world.
In 1940. Greece invaded by the troops of Mussolini, despite the overwhelming superiority of the enemy, the Greeks responded to the fascist aggression with all the passion of its national character. As a result of military experience (in 1940 ... 1941. writer served in the rank of second lieutenant) E. once again proved that 'the highest poetry is neither optimistic nor pessimistic. It represents the third state of mind in which the opposition seemed to have ceased to exist '. The fruit of this perception was 'heroic and elegiac song for the dead in the Albanian campaign lieutenant' (1943). In this long, written in the form of a symphony poem E. used surrealistic associations, so that, as noted by Kimon Frayer, 'to enter the national psyche, and thus speak not only with itself, but also with their people'. For the young Greek war time is the product became something of a poetic mascot.
After the liberation of Greece E. from 1945 to 1946. works at the Institute for National Radio in Athens, . then, . over the next two years, . publishes articles and reviews on literary topics in the newspaper 'Kafimerini' ( 'Daily Newspaper'), . In 1948, Mr., . poet moved to Paris, . where for four years studying literature at the Sorbonne,
. During his stay in Paris, E. enjoys fine arts and art history, . puts the article in the journal 'Wind' ( 'Verve'), . acquainted with many contemporary artists, . which wrote, . including Pablo Picasso, . Henri Matisse, . Alberto Giacometti, and Giorgio de Chirico.,
. Upon his return to Greece (1953) E
. again working at the Institute of National Broadcasting, has been actively involved in cultural activities. His next literary work 'It Is' (1948 ... 1959) - is a spiritual autobiography in verse and prose, . resembling the liturgy of the Greek Orthodox Church, and written in the demotic, . although it uses all the wealth of Greek linguistic tradition,
. E. The next book, a collection of poems under the title 'Six and one for the sky', appeared after his autobiography (1960)
In 1961. E. four months of staying in the United States at the invitation of the State Department, and in 1962. - In the Soviet Union. From 1965 to 1968. E. works in the administrative council of the Greek National Theater, . and the next two years conducting a self-imposed exile in France in protest against the military coup, . led to the overthrow of the Greek government and the establishment of military dictatorship (1967),
. During this period, written by 'King-Sun' (1971) and 'Tree of Light and Fourteenth Beauty' (1971).
For many years, E. wrote a long poem, 'Maria Nephele', where alternating monologues girl embodies a radical, liberated generation. The poem was published in 1978. Unlike other works of the poet in 'Maria Nephele' captures real life experience: after writing 'It Is' E. met a young woman, and it's suddenly wanted to write something completely different '. Although some of the admirers E. have been puzzled by the unusual orientation for a poet 'Maria Nephele', the poem has become very popular, especially among the generation whose point of view, Maria. Critic B. Reyzis praised 'Maria Nephele' for 'poetic richness and relevance ... In this original, dynamic and impressive poetic collage reflected and dramatize the suffering and the tragic-comedy, hope, and the vulgarity of our aggressive and wildness decades'.
E. received the Nobel Prize 'for poetry, which is in keeping with Greek tradition, with sensuous strength and intellectual acumen depicts the struggle of modern man for freedom and independence'. So he considered the award of the Swedish Academy is not only an honor for myself, 'but also for Greece, with its centuries of history - the oldest in Europe'.
Critic and translator Edmund Keeley said the creative growth of E. and the constancy of his interests: 'Although his interests have remained essentially the same as they were at the beginning of a creative way ... he is looking for new ways to express their eternal order '. English poet and novelist Lawrence Durrell wrote about E.: 'He has a romantic and lyrical mind, inclined to the sensual metaphysics ... His poems - this spell, they appeal to the life that imperishable Greek world, which is always felt in the European consciousness'.
E. - Not only a writer but an artist, he confirmed bachelor, lives in Athens. In addition to the Nobel Prize, E. also awarded the National Prize of Greece in the field of poetry (1960) (the poet awarded the first such award), as well as the Order of the Phoenix (1965).