Addams (Addams), Jane( The activity of the American social reformism, Supertestimone, the Nobel Peace Prize, 1931)
Comments for Addams (Addams), Jane
Biography Addams (Addams), Jane
September 6, 1860, Mr.. - May 21, 1935
. Laura Jane Addams - one of the first figures of the American social reformism, . Supertestimone, . founder of Hull House - was born in Sederville (Illinois), the eighth of nine children, . Her father, . John Hugh Addams, . was a prosperous banker and state senator from the Republican Party, . of beliefs - abolitionist,
. Mother - Sarah Weber - came from a German family. When A. was two years old, her mother died. The girl is very attached to her father, who remained for her model throughout its life.
In 1877, Mr.. A. enters Rokfordskuyu girls' school that prepared women for missionary work. A. graduated from high school with honors in 1881, a year later received a bachelor's degree. At the end of 1881. she entered the Women's Medical College (Philadelphia), but because of poor health, was able to study only a few months. The death of his father in the same year was a heavy blow for the girl, eight years a. held depressed, distressed by illness, misfortune and insecurity.
In 1883, Mr.. A. with her friend Ellen Gates Starr went to Europe. They visited Toynbee Hall, a shelter in London's East End, which is serviced by a group of students at Oxford University. Inspired by their work, and. and Starr returned to the United States, determined to find a place where 'they could learn from the life of life itself'. The search led them to the 19-th quarter of Chicago, the poor district, populated by immigrants. In September 1889. girlfriend are moving into the house of Charles Hull and organize there an experiment that has attracted the attention of prominent reformers of the future.
. Within a few years in Hull-House were organized creche, a library, gym, bindery, communal kitchen, art studio, museum work, and board for young workers
. It housed dozens of clubs, a group of artists, music schools and even a troupe of artists. Living quarters to take English classes, cooking, sewing and literature. Many thousands of slum-dwellers visited Hull House at different times. With the support of wealthy Chicago philanthropists possibility Hull Hausa increased significantly, and he is now comprised of thirteen buildings, significantly expanded the educational, social and recreational sectors.
. But the charitable activities of patrons in some cases hampered attempts A
. political methods to improve the lives of the poor. Hull House did much to take first in the Illinois law on the inspection of factories in 1893, two years later at Hull-House was issued Sociological Review sweatshop labor, densely populated residential areas, etc.. Under pressure from Hull-House was established and the country's first juvenile court (1889). A. used its influence to the development of legislation on child and female labor, compulsory school attendance and safety in industry. Like other educated women, she moved into lobbying, collecting data, conducting statistics and influencing public opinion.
Conviction that 'the moral strength of women' must be expressed in the voting, a. participated in the Chicago campaign suffragettes in 1907, from 1911 to 1914. she was vice-president of the American Association for women's suffrage, was present at the congress of the International Union of female suffrage in Budapest. According to A., nature has given women all necessary for participation in society, and given civil rights, women could make to solving social problems is much greater contribution. After the Progressive Party Convention 1912. A. revised attitude toward the candidacy of Theodore Roosevelt, campaigned in support of it.
Since the beginning of the First World War, A. participated in the movement of pacifists. In January, 1915. She was elected to chair the newly established Women's Peace Party. Several months later, along with Emily Greene Balch A. participated in the International Congress of Women in The Hague. By this time, is the unsuccessful attempt with the help of neutral countries to achieve a truce between the warring states.
When the United States in 1917. entered the war, A. not changed his pacifist views. She protested against the mobilization, in the midst of war hysteria organized a campaign of protection of German immigrants, worked with the American Relief Administration (ARA), led by Mr.. Hoover, in order to provide food assistance to children and women in Germany. In 1920, Mr.. A. was among the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. While her views shared by few, the press vilified A., Roosevelt called ce 'mighty mouse', and the Ministry of Justice has set for her supervision. On charges of subversion and treason, she was excluded from the Union of the daughters of the American Revolution, were placed in her guilt and communist views.
Her commitment to peace has not ended the war in Europe. In 1919, Mr.. A. was elected president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, owes its appearance to the Hague Congress 1915. The League advocated a 'conflict resolution at the expense of human solidarity, appeasement, and international cooperation, establish social, political and economic justice for all without distinction of sex, race, class and religion'.
A. believed that the policy of passive resistance advocated by Mahatma Gandhi, in itself does not guarantee peace, to preserve that can only organized pressure on the government. Under the guidance of a. WILPF sought to eliminate the danger of war through the revision of the peace treaties, the abandonment of conscription, universal disarmament, the cessation of payments on reparations. Together with Emily Greene Balch, secretary-treasurer of the League, but. tried to influence the League of Nations, seeking its democratization through the recognition of minority rights. Failing health forced her to withdraw from the Women's League in 1929
In 1931, Mr.. (after re-submission) A. became the first American awarded the Nobel Peace Prize as the 'true delegate all peace-loving women of the world'. A. shared the prize with Nicholas Myurreem Butler. Ill-health prevented her to attend the awards ceremony.
Throughout his life, A. conducted among women. Due to illness of the spine, she could not have children and not married. Friends remembered her as a human-friendly and responsive, though prone to lock himself in his. She tied the warmest friendship with Ellen Gates Starr and Mary Rozet Smith. In recent years, a life. spent more time at M. Smith, than even in the Hull-House. She died of cancer May 21, 1935, Mr.. and buried in Sederville, in a small cemetery.
Activity A. had an impressive impact on the humanitarian sphere of society. Jobs in Hull-House not only softened the alienation and the plight of immigrants, but also served as a model for the organizers of such institutions throughout. Efforts A. to improve living conditions in the outskirts of the city have created a new profession of social officer. In an effort to eradicate the hostility between people, but. remained pacifist, despite the tremendous pressure during the World War II. War hysteria and red-baiting did not prevent her consistently act in the protection of personal civil rights. Owes a. are attempts to influence the government in favor of dialogue and disarmament.
For A. the world was not merely the absence of war, but the condition of human life. Women, with their particular spirituality, according to A., created for peacemaking. She repeatedly stressed the "historic role of women in the enjoyment of fundamental human rights'. Playing this role for many years,. can be traced in the tradition of American reformism.